资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (3): 554-569.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.03.10

• 资源经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国采矿业绿色发展的动力特征与政策启示——基于企业异质性视角

于立宏(), 金玉健()   

  1. 华东理工大学商学院,上海 200237
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-09 修回日期:2022-02-22 出版日期:2022-03-25 发布日期:2022-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 金玉健,男,安徽安庆人,博士研究生,研究方向为资源与环境经济学。E-mail: jinyujian2014@126.com
  • 作者简介:于立宏,女,黑龙江伊春人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为政府规制、资源与环境经济学。E-mail: ylhcumt@vip.sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71773029)

Dynamic characteristics of green development in China's mining industry and policy implications: From the perspective of firm heterogeneity

YU Lihong(), JIN Yujian()   

  1. College of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
  • Received:2021-04-09 Revised:2022-02-22 Online:2022-03-25 Published:2022-05-25

摘要:

探析异质性矿企绿色发展的动力特征能够为评估和制定采矿业绿色发展政策提供参考。本文以2003—2018年沪深A股采矿业上市公司为研究对象,利用随机前沿模型测算了企业考虑资源和环境双重负外部性的绿色全要素生产率增长及其分解结果,据此讨论了不同规模和所有制矿企绿色发展动力特征的演化及其政策含义。研究发现:①总体上,平均规模效应是驱动中国采矿业上市公司绿色全要素生产率增长的主要动力,但规模效应下降及大幅波动也在制约其可持续增长,技术进步虽然稳步提升,但目前作用甚微;②国有矿企存在技术进步相对优势,但规模效应并不突出,而近年来非国有矿企的规模效应快速改善,并推动其在能源开采业和金属矿采选业中绿色全要素生产率增长超过国企;③相对于中小矿企,大型矿企具有规模和技术优势,但受规模效应下降影响,其绿色发展前景不容乐观,这在能源开采业和金属矿采选业中均得到验证。据此,本文梳理了2000年以来政府出台的与矿企规模和所有制相关的政策,发现这些政策因忽视异质性矿企的绿色发展差异而作用有限,未来政策制定应当考虑消除规模和所有制歧视,加快实施创新驱动战略。

关键词: 采矿业, 上市公司, 绿色全要素生产率, 规模效应, 技术进步, 企业规模, 所有制

Abstract:

Clarifying the dynamic characteristics of heterogeneous mining enterprises' green development can provide insights for evaluating and formulating green mining policies. Taking A-share listed mining enterprises in Shanghai and Shenzhen from 2003 to 2018 as an example, this study used the stochastic frontier model to calculate the growth and decomposition results of Green Total Factor Productivity (GTFP) of heterogeneous mining enterprises considering the negative externalities of resources and environment, and discussed the dynamic characteristics of green development of mining enterprises and their policy implications. The results show that: (1) Overall, the average scale effect is the main force driving the growth of the GTFP of China's listed mining companies, but the decline and sharp fluctuation of the scale effect restrict the green and sustainable development of mining industries. Although technological progress has steadily improved, its effect is very weak. (2) State-owned mining enterprises have relative advantages in technological progress, but the scale effect is not prominent. The scale effect of non-state-owned mining enterprises has improved rapidly in recent years, driving their GTFP growth in energy and metal mineral industries to exceed that of state-owned enterprises. (3) Compared with small and medium-sized mining enterprises, large enterprises have advantages in scale economies and technological progress, but their prospects are not optimistic due to the sharp decline in scale effect, which has been verified in energy and metal mineral industries. Furthermore, this study examined the mining green development policies related to enterprise scale and ownership issued by the government since 2000, and we found that these policies may have limited effects by ignoring the differences of green development dynamics among enterprises. Future policies should consider eliminating discrimination of scale and ownership, and accelerate the implementation of innovation driven strategy.

Key words: mining industry, listed companies, green total factor productivity, scale effect, technological progress, enterprise scale, ownership