资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (3): 425-435.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.03.01

• 土地资源 •    下一篇

耕地集约利用转型的理论解析

杜国明1,2(), 薛濡壕2, 于凤荣3()   

  1. 1.东北农业大学公共管理与法学院,哈尔滨 150030
    2.东北农业大学经济管理学院,哈尔滨 150030
    3.黑龙江省农垦科学院科技情报研究所,哈尔滨 150038
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-16 修回日期:2021-11-29 出版日期:2022-03-25 发布日期:2022-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 于凤荣,女,黑龙江富锦人,硕士,副研究员,主要从事耕地利用与评价研究。E-mail: yufr@126.com
  • 作者简介:杜国明,男,内蒙古赤峰人,博士,教授,主要从事土地资源优化配置与农村区域发展研究。E-mail: nmgdgm@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    黑龙江省自然科学基金联合引导项目(LH2019D012);国家社会科学基金项目(21BJY209)

Theoretical analysis of farmland intensive use transition

DU Guoming1,2(), XUE Ruhao2, YU Fengrong3()   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration and Law, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
    2. School of Economics and Management, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
    3. Institute of Scientific and Technical Information, Heilongjiang Academy of Land Reclamation, Harbin 150038, China
  • Received:2021-08-16 Revised:2021-11-29 Online:2022-03-25 Published:2022-05-25

摘要:

耕地集约利用是保障粮食安全、提高农业经济效益、增加农民收入的重要手段,在面对日益复杂的人地关系以及社会经济发展变化过程中,如何通过破解土地、劳动力、资金与技术难题来探究耕地集约利用转型是土地资源科学亟需解决的重要议题,这对于促进耕地资源优化配置、农业转型发展和质量兴农具有重要的理论和现实意义。鉴于此,本文运用文献回顾和综合归纳法,基于耕地利用系统理论,从要素替代视角分析耕地集约利用转型内涵,进而剖析耕地集约利用转型的动力机制、演化阶段与特征,并提出转型优化调控途径。结果发现:①耕地利用系统是指农业生产经营参与者在一定数量和质量的耕地上通过投入适量的劳动生产要素而获得农产品及社会经济效益的自然-人工复合系统。由耕地利用系统要素和结构优化调整转变而引发的耕地利用系统演化对研究耕地集约利用转型的本质具有借鉴意义。②耕地集约利用转型是指耕地利用系统的要素和结构随着自然地理、社会经济等外部环境变化而不断调整变化后呈现出的趋势性转折。耕地集约利用转型的演化过程是:劳动集约型阶段—资金集约型阶段—技术集约型阶段,具有一定持续性和阶段性特征。③耕地集约利用转型动力机制包括:耕地、劳动力、农业物资、技术等耕地利用系统内部不同要素价值和价格非同步演变机制与各要素相互替代和重组机制,以及产权赋能与合理收益分配制度的联合反馈机制。因此,本文认为,助推耕地集约利用转型可以通过促进耕地增值、调整耕地利用主体、对农业生产进行补贴等途径进行综合调控。

关键词: 耕地集约利用, 转型, 耕地利用系统, 机制, 过程, 调控

Abstract:

Farmland intensive use is the key to ensuring food security, improving agricultural economic benefits, and increasing farmers' income. Farmland intensive use transition is an important issue that needs to be examined urgently in land resources science. Analyzing the factors of land, labor, capital, and technology has important theoretical and practical significance for promoting the optimal allocation of arable land resources, agricultural transformation and development, and quality agriculture. Based on the theory of farmland use system, this study used literature review and comprehensive induction to analyze the connotation of farmland intensive use transition from the perspective of factor substitution; the dynamic mechanism, evolution stage, and characteristics of farmland intensive use transition; and ways to optimize the regulation and control of farmland intensive use transition. The results show that: (1) Farmland use system is a natural-artificial composite system in which agricultural operators obtain agricultural products and benefits by inputting labor and production factors on farmland. The study on the transition of farmland intensive use can benefit from studies on the evolution of farmland use system. (2) The transition of intensive use of farmland refers to the trend transition of the elements and structure of the farmland use system as the external environment changes. The evolutionary process of the transition of intensive use of farmland is labor intensive stage capital intensive stage technology intensive stage, which has certain continuity and stage characteristics. (3) The dynamic mechanism of the transition of intensive use of farmland includes the non-synchronous evolution mechanism of the value and price of different elements, the mutual substitution and reorganization mechanism of each element, and the joint feedback mechanism in response to the perfect property rights. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive regulation in terms of promoting the value-added of farmland, adjusting the main subjects of farmland utilization, and subsidizing agricultural production.

Key words: farmland intensive use, transition, farmland use system, mechanism, process, regulation