资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (2): 401-413.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.02.15

• 海洋资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于可持续发展目标的海洋资源综合立法

吴妤婷1(), 白佳玉2()   

  1. 1.中国海洋大学法学院,青岛 266100
    2.南开大学法学院,天津 300071
  • 收稿日期:2021-06-06 修回日期:2021-12-09 出版日期:2022-02-25 发布日期:2022-04-13
  • 通讯作者: 白佳玉,女,辽宁辽中人,法学博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为海洋法。E-mail: gracefulgl@hotmail.com
  • 作者简介:吴妤婷,女,重庆江津人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为国际法。E-mail: wyt0302001@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大研究专项项目(18VHQ001)

Integrated legislation of marine resources based on the sustainable development goals

WU Yuting1(), BAI Jiayu2()   

  1. 1. School of Law, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
    2. School of Law, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
  • Received:2021-06-06 Revised:2021-12-09 Online:2022-02-25 Published:2022-04-13

摘要:

可持续发展作为资源开发的关键要素,已成为海洋发展战略与综合立法的重要内容;但少有基于可持续发展目标、以海洋资源开发为主题的海洋综合立法研究。本文通过拓展可持续发展理念内涵、明晰中国海洋综合立法的主要内部矛盾与外部影响因素,探索群落与可持续发展进程对海洋管理模式的影响,以及比较分析典型国家的海洋综合立法。研究发现:①基于生态系统的海洋管理模式(Marine Ecosystem-Based Management,MEBM))兼顾了生态系统关联性与管理适应性的特点,进而推动海洋管理模式的创新。②中国“海洋生态保护优先”理念对事前预防的偏向符合MEBM模式追求的管理实效,“生态+海洋管理”模式可为中国构建基于可持续发展目标的海洋法立法提供思路。③外国通过海洋基本法/综合立法设立专门海洋管理机构、制定中长期海洋计划、明确“海洋”“生态”法律地位等方式,有针对性地采取差异性MEBM模式,为中国海洋综合立法研究提供有益参考。

关键词: 可持续发展, 群落, 海洋资源, 基于生态系统的管理, 海洋综合立法

Abstract:

Sustainable development is a key element of resource exploitation and it has become an important part of marine development strategies and integrated marine legislation. However, there exist only few studies on integrated marine legislation with the theme of marine resources exploitation that are based on the sustainable development goals. This article expands the connotation of the concept of sustainable development and analyzes the main internal contradictions and external influencing factors of China’s integrated marine legislation. By exploring the influence of sustainable development processes on marine management models and the integrated legislation based on ecosystems, the authors found that: (1) The marine ecosystem- based management (MEBM) model takes the characteristics of ecosystem interconnectedness and management adaptability into account, and thus promoting the innovation of marine management models. (2) The preference of the precautionary is in line with the value selection of the ocean management model based on the ecosystem, and the model of “ecology + marine management” can be used as the legislative way for China to construct the marine law which based on the sustainable goals. (3) Foreign countries’ integrated marine legislation had the experience to set up specialized agencies, make medium or long term plans, clarify the legal status of “marine” and “ecology” which provide a reference for the integrated marine legislation of China.

Key words: sustainable development, community, marine resources, ecosystem-based management, marine legislation