资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (2): 320-333.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.02.09

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

小麦最低收购价政策对化肥施用强度的影响——基于农地权属的调节效应

高婧(), 曹宝明, 李宁   

  1. 南京财经大学粮食经济研究院,南京 210003
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-23 修回日期:2021-09-04 出版日期:2022-02-25 发布日期:2022-04-13
  • 作者简介:高婧,女,江苏盐城人,博士研究生,副研究员,研究方向为粮食流通和粮食安全政策。E-mail: 9120211079@nufe.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重点项目(20AZD116)

Impact of the wheat minimum purchase price policy on chemical fertilizer application intensity: Based on the moderation effects of farmland property rights

GAO Jing(), CAO Baoming, LI Ning   

  1. Food Economic Research Institute, Nanjing University of Finance & Economics, Nanjing 210003, China
  • Received:2021-04-23 Revised:2021-09-04 Online:2022-02-25 Published:2022-04-13

摘要:

自2004年粮食购销市场全面放开以来,国家实施了以粮食最低收购价、临时收储为主要内容的粮食托市收购政策。与此同时,以化肥为代表的农业化学品,作为农业生产的重要投入要素,对农业经营活动的影响日益凸显。然而,不断增加的化肥投入在保证国家粮食安全的同时,也面临着盲目、过量施用而导致化肥施用强度过高的问题。因此,本文以粮食流通中的小麦最低收购价政策这一典型托市收购政策为例,探索政府托市收购对化肥施肥强度的影响。利用1994—2018年中国省级面板数据,在阐述小麦最低收购价政策运行机理的基础上,采用双重差分、三重差分、事件分析等估计方法,着重分析该政策实施如何影响小麦化肥施用强度的问题,并联系中国的农地制度背景,进一步分析农地权属构成对该政策实施效果产生的影响。结果表明:①小麦最低收购价政策促使种植户在增产的目的之下提高了化肥施用强度,且具有持续增强的动态效应;②同时,政策对化肥施用强度的影响受到了农地权属构成的调节,表现为自有农地比重增加会弱化政策提高化肥施用强度的效果,租赁农地比重增加会强化政策提高化肥施用强度的效果;③在这一调节作用之下,政策对化肥施用强度的影响与种植面积呈现出了U型关系。本文对粮食托市收购政策效应的评估和阐释,对探求农业经营规模背景之下协调中国粮食安全和生态环境安全,具有重要的现实意义。

关键词: 托市收购, 最低收购价政策, 化肥施用强度, 农地产权结构, 调节效应, 双重差分方法, 中国

Abstract:

Since China’s grain market opened up in 2004, the country implemented the minimum grain purchase price policy and contingency reserve policy as the main content of the grain purchase to support the market policy. Meanwhile, agricultural chemicals and chemical fertilizers in particular, as one of the important agricultural production inputs, increasingly influence the operation of agriculture. But excessive use of chemical fertilizers has led to various agricultural environment problems. Therefore, taking the wheat minimum purchase price policy in grain circulation as an example, this study explored the influence of government purchase policy on fertilizer application intensity. Using the provincial panel data in 1994-2018, this study examined the mechanism of wheat minimum purchase price policy operation based on the difference-in-differences (DID), difference-in-differences-in-differences (DDD), and event analysis methods and analyzed how the policy affects the intensity of fertilizer application in wheat production. The results show that: (1) The wheat minimum purchase price policy promoted the farmers to increase the fertilizer application intensity with the purpose of increasing yield and had a continuously increasing dynamic effect; (2) The effect of the policy on the intensity of chemical fertilizer application was moderated by the composition of farmland ownership. The effect of the policy on the intensity of chemical fertilizer application was weakened by the increase of the proportion of owned farmland and strengthened by the increase of the proportion of rented farmland. (3) Under such moderation, the policy’s influence on the intensity of fertilizer application and planting area revealed a U-shaped relationship. In the context of exploring the scale of agricultural operations to coordinate China’s food security and ecological environment protection, the evaluation and interpretation of the effects of minimum grain purchase price policy to support the market has important theoretical and practical significance.

Key words: purchase to support the market, minimum purchase price policy, chemical fertilizer application intensity, farmland property right composition, moderation effects, difference-in-differences method, China