资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (2): 261-273.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.02.04

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于水资源分区的黄河流域极端降水时空变化特征

吕锦心1,2(), 刘昌明1, 梁康1(), 田巍1,2, 白鹏1, 张仪辉1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-20 修回日期:2021-10-09 出版日期:2022-02-25 发布日期:2022-04-13
  • 通讯作者: 梁康,男,重庆巴南人,博士,副研究员,主要从事流域水文过程演变机理与模拟研究。E-mail: liangk@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:吕锦心,女,浙江绍兴人,硕士生,研究方向为水文水资源。E-mail: lvjx.19s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971035);中国科学院青年创新促进会会员人才专项(2019054);中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所“秉维”优秀青年人才计划项目(2017RC204)

Spatiotemporal variations of extreme precipitation in the Yellow River Basin based on water resources regionalization

LV Jinxin1,2(), LIU Changming1, LIANG Kang1(), TIAN Wei1,2, BAI Peng1, ZHANG Yihui1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-07-20 Revised:2021-10-09 Online:2022-02-25 Published:2022-04-13

摘要:

探究和预估气候变化下黄河流域极端降水的变化特征,是科学认知黄河水情以及支撑流域防洪减灾工作的基础。本文基于全国水资源二级分区,综合采用“中国区域地面气象要素驱动数据集”和跨部门影响模型相互比较项目(ISIMIP)的降水数据,利用Mann-Kendall趋势检验、Sen’s斜率估计等方法分析了黄河流域及其8个二级水资源分区的6个极端降水指标在历史期(1979—2018年)和未来期(2021—2100年)的时空变化特性。研究表明:①空间上,历史期与未来不同情景下黄河流域极端降水指标值在整体上均呈现由西北至东南逐渐增大的变化特征,在河口镇至龙门(Ⅳ)、龙门至三门峡(Ⅴ)等分区内部还出现了极端降水高值中心,这些区域高值中心与历史洪水爆发区具有较好的空间对应关系;②时间上(历史期),多数水资源分区的极端降水指标主要呈上升趋势,且小时尺度极端降水增强是所有分区的统一特征;作为黄河干流洪水主要来源区的兰州以上(Ⅰ和Ⅱ)、河口镇至龙门(Ⅳ)、花园口以下(Ⅶ)分区的所有极端降水指标呈上升趋势;③时间上(未来期),在不同辐射强迫情景下,未来各水资源分区的极端降水指标值都呈增加趋势,且增加幅度和空间覆盖范围会随着辐射强迫的增大而增大,这将加剧黄河分区防洪形势,其中河口镇以上3个分区(Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ)和龙门至三门峡(Ⅴ)分区的极端降水增强幅度最为明显,是未来防洪重点区。本文结果可为黄河流域未来极端降水灾害风险评估、区域防洪风险分析及应对、雨洪水资源管理等提供参考。

关键词: 极端降水, 水资源分区, 空间分异, 地球系统模式, ISIMIP, 黄河流域

Abstract:

Investigating the change characteristics of extreme precipitation in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) is essential for understanding the hydrologic regime and reducing flood losses. In this study, based on the national secondary water resources regionalization, the spatiotemporal variations of the six extreme precipitation indicators of the YRB and its eight subregions were analyzed for the historical period (1979-2018) and the future period (2021-2100) using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator. The precipitation data for the two periods were obtained from the China Meteorological Forcing Dataset and the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project, respectively. The results show that: (1) Values of the six extreme precipitation indicators increase from northwest to southeast in the YRB during the two periods from a spatial perspective. The areas with high indicator values appear in the Hekou-Longmen subregion and the Longmen-Sanmenxia subregion, which correspond to sites with frequent floods. (2) From a temporal perspective, the hourly-scale indicator values increase in all subregions, and values of the rest five indicators increase in most subregions during the historical period. As significant flood source areas, the four subregions (above Longyangxia, Longyangxia-Lanzhou, Hekou-Longmen, and below Huayuankou) all experience an increase in values of the six indicators. (3) Values of the six indicators of all subregions increase in the three future emission scenarios, with larger increments in higher greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The increasing trends of all the indicators would prevent effective flood prevention. The three subregions above Hekou and the Longmen-Sanmenxia subregion with significant growing trends are critical areas for future flood prevention. The results could provide a valuable reference for future risk assessment of extreme precipitation, regional flood risk analysis and prevention, and water resources management in the YRB.

Key words: extreme precipitation, water resources regionalization, spatial differentiation, Earth System Model, ISIMIP, Yellow River Basin