资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (1): 143-155.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.01.11

• 旅游资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国西部地区旅游环境效率时空分异及影响因素

覃小华1,2(), 李星明1(), 时朋飞3, 唐明贵1   

  1. 1. 华中师范大学城市与环境学院,武汉 430079
    2. 南宁师范大学旅游与文化学院,南宁 530001
    3. 西南大学,重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-15 修回日期:2022-01-03 出版日期:2022-01-25 发布日期:2022-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 李星明,男,湖北谷城人,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为旅游地理、文化地理。E-mail: xingming@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:覃小华,女,广西横县人,经济师,博士研究生,主要研究方向为旅游地理。E-mail: niq488@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    广西社会科学基金项目(20FMZ023);“广西壮族自治区八桂学者”工程专项经费资助项目(2019BG07)

Spatial-temporal differentiation and influencing factors of tourism environmental efficiency in western China

QIN Xiaohua1,2(), LI Xingming1(), SHI Pengfei3, TANG Minggui1   

  1. 1. College of City and Environment, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
    2. College of Tourism and Culture, Nanning Normal University, Nanning 530001, China
    3. Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2021-03-15 Revised:2022-01-03 Online:2022-01-25 Published:2022-03-25

摘要:

旅游环境效率表征绿色发展水平,直接关系到旅游业与生态环境两大系统的协调发展。基于中国西部地区2009—2018年的面板数据,综合运用非期望产出的Super-SBM 模型、探索性空间数据分析、趋势面分析等方法阐释西部地区旅游环境效率的时空分异特征,并结合地理探测器方法揭示旅游环境效率时空分异的影响因素。研究表明:①西部地区的旅游环境效率平均水平较低,随着时间的推移总体表现出曲折式上升态势,并且西部地区各省(区、市)旅游环境效率均值具有显著差异,效率均值极差较大,呈现高离散性现象;②研究期内西部地区旅游环境效率具有显著的空间正相关性,表现出“西低东高,北低南高,东西陡峭,南北亦陡”的空间趋势特征,并且随时间变化表现出冷热交替现象,热点区聚集南部地区,冷点区分布西北地区,同时西部地区旅游环境效率发生了明显空间层级变化,高效率区和次高效率区占比逐渐增加;③西部地区旅游环境效率时空分异受到多重因素的综合影响,环境自净能力、产业支撑能力、经济发展水平、交通可达性、人力资本、科技发展水平是旅游环境效率的重要影响因子,不同的交互因子驱动力均高于单独因子的力度,而对外开放水平、城镇化水平、旅游资源相对丰度、环境规制水平等因子对旅游环境效率时空分异的解释力度较小。为此,本文建议根据重要影响因素大力提升西部地区旅游环境效率并优化空间分异格局,促进生态文明建设。

关键词: 旅游环境效率, Super-SBM 模型, 地理探测器, 时空分异, 影响因素, 中国西部

Abstract:

Tourism environmental efficiency, representing its green development level, is directly related to the coordinated development of tourism and ecological environment. Based on the panel data of the western region of China in 2009-2018 and the integrated use of the expected output of super-SBM (slacks-based measure) models, exploratory spatial data analysis, and trend surface analysis, this study examined the spatial and temporal differentiation characteristics of tourism environmental efficiency in western China. Combined with the geographical detector method, this study identified the factors that affect the spatial and temporal differentiation of tourism environmental efficiency. The results show that: (1) The average level of tourism environmental efficiency in western China is low, and it showed a fluctuating upward trend with the passage of time. The mean values of tourism environmental efficiency in different provinces and autonomous regions in western China were significantly different, the extreme mean values differed greatly, and the mean values were highly dispersed. (2) In the study period, tourism environmental efficiency in the western region showed significant positive spatial correlation, low in the west and north and high in the east and south, with steep slopes in each direction. Hot spot and cold spot areas alternated, and hot spots gathered in the southern area and cold spots in the northwestern area. Meanwhile, tourism environmental efficiency experienced obvious spatial scale changes, and high efficiency and medium-high efficiency areas gradually increased. (3) The spatial and temporal differentiation of tourism environmental efficiency was affected by multiple factors. Environmental carrying capacity, industrial supporting ability, the level of economic development, transportation accessibility, human capital, and science and technology development level were the important influencing factors, and the interactive influences of different driving factors were higher than that of individual factors. However, factors such as the level of opening-up, urbanization, relative abundance of tourism resources, and level of environmental regulation had little influence on the spatial-temporal differentiation of tourism environmental efficiency. Therefore, this article suggests that tourism environmental efficiency and spatial differentiation pattern in western China should be greatly improved according to the important influencing factors, in order to promote the high-quality development of tourism and promote ecological civilization construction.

Key words: environmental efficiency of tourism, super-SBM model, geographical detector, temporal and spatial differentiation, influencing factors, western China