资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (12): 2451-2464.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.12.08

• “澜沧江—湄公河流域农业资源与环境”专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

中老铁路建设对沿线景观格局影响的尺度效应

翁凌飞1(), 白昊男1, 沈镭2()   

  1. 1.重庆大学公共管理学院,重庆 400044
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-13 修回日期:2021-10-28 出版日期:2021-12-25 发布日期:2022-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 沈镭,男,湖北麻城人,博士,研究员,研究方向为全球自然资源管理与政策评价。E-mail: shenl@igsnrr.ac.cn
    沈镭,男,湖北麻城人,博士,研究员,研究方向为全球自然资源管理与政策评价。E-mail: shenl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:翁凌飞,女,四川阆中人,博士,研究员,研究方向为发展中国家的可持续发展、国际发展与全球治理。E-mail: wenglf@cqu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    重庆大学中央高校基本科研业务费项目(2020CDJSK01PY18);国家自然科学基金项目(41771566);中国地质调查局项目(DD20211413)

Scaling impacts of China-Laos Railway construction on landscape patterns

WENG Lingfei1(), BAI Haonan1, SHEN Lei2()   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2021-05-13 Revised:2021-10-28 Online:2021-12-25 Published:2022-02-25

摘要:

线性交通廊道建设对区域景观格局产生深刻影响,科学分析廊道建设对景观格局的影响及尺度效应,明确景观格局的变化趋势,从而构建线性交通廊道建设与生态保护均衡发展格局,对铁路所在区域实现可持续发展具有重要意义。本文以中老(中国—老挝)铁路为研究对象,基于2015和2020年的土地利用数据,采用土地利用转移矩阵及回归分析等研究方法,分析铁路沿线整体和不同类型的景观格局指数变化特征及其空间差异,揭示中老铁路建设对沿线景观格局的影响及尺度效应。研究表明:①中老铁路沿线区域土地利用以林地为主,2020年铁路廊道土建工程完工后,林地面积减少,耕地面积有所增加,部分减少的林地面积转化为耕地。②铁路建设导致沿线缓冲区整体景观格局的异质性增强,斑块连通程度减弱,斑块面积缩减,林地破碎度加剧。③整体景观和林地的斑块密度、分散指数均与铁路影响尺度呈倒“U”型关系,铁路对整体景观和林地的景观格局产生显著影响的拐点分别位于铁路两侧6 km和8 km附近。本文结果可用于评估铁路等线性交通廊道的建设对沿线景观带来的影响,对未来中国与澜沧江—湄公河流域的其他国家在实现互联互通的同时,如何制定更具针对性的景观格局保护政策与措施提供科学依据。

关键词: 线性交通廊道, 景观格局指数, 尺度效应, 中老铁路, 可持续发展, 澜湄流域

Abstract:

The construction of linear transport corridors has profound impacts on regional landscape patterns. Thus, analyzing the scale effects of corridor construction on landscape patterns, identifying the change trend of landscape affected by railway construction, and achieving a balanced development of linear transport corridor construction and ecological protection are significant for the sustainable development in the region where a railway is located. Taking the China-Laos Railway as an example and based on the land use data between 2015 and 2020, this study applied the land use transfer matrix and regression analysis to analyze the characteristics and spatial differences of the overall and different landscape along the railway and revealed the scale effects of the China-Laos Railway construction on the landscape patterns. The results indicate that: (1) The land use along the China-Laos Railway is mainly forestland. After the completion of the railway construction in 2020, the forest area decreased and cultivated land area increased, and part of the forestland has been transformed into cultivated land. (2) The railway construction led to an increased heterogeneity of the overall landscape pattern, while connectivity among the patches became weakened, patch area decreased, and forest fragmentation increased. (3) The patch density (PD) and dispersion index (SPLIT) of the overall landscape and the forest land are in an inverted U-shaped relationship with the scale effects of the railway. The inflection points of the railway that have a significant impact on the overall and forest landscapes are about 6 km and 8 km respectively from the railway on both sides. The results of this study can be applied to evaluate the impacts of the construction of linear transport corridors such as railways on landscape and guide other countries to formulate more specific landscape protection policies while realizing interconnection between China and other developing countries in the Lancang-Mekong Basin in the future.

Key words: linear transport corridor, landscape pattern index, scale effect, China-Laos Railway, sustainable development, Lancang-Mekong Basin