资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (11): 2173-2191.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.03

• 自然资源分类专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于利用视角的土地资源分类方法探讨

杨子生(), 杨诗琴, 杨人懿, 王佳, 吴秋菊   

  1. 云南财经大学国土资源与持续发展研究所,昆明 650221
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-03 修回日期:2021-07-19 出版日期:2021-11-25 发布日期:2022-01-27
  • 作者简介:杨子生,男,云南大理人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事土地资源与土地利用规划、山区开发与精准扶贫、乡村振兴、区域可持续发展等领域的研究工作。E-mail: yangzisheng@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41261018)

Classification method of land resources based on land use perspective

YANG Zisheng(), YANG Shiqin, YANG Renyi, WANG Jia, WU Qiuju   

  1. Institute of Land & Resources and Sustainable Development, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, Kunming 650221, China
  • Received:2021-05-03 Revised:2021-07-19 Online:2021-11-25 Published:2022-01-27

摘要:

科学、合理、可行的土地资源分类是切实有效地开展土地资源调查、正确地制定土地资源开发利用与整治规划方案、以及科学地管理土地资源的前提和基础。本文在界定土地资源分类概念和内涵的基础上,对国外6套代表性的土地资源分类体系和国内已有的8套全国性土地分类系统进行了比较与评析,分析了中国现行土地资源分类体系中存在的主要问题,进而提出了完善中国土地资源分类体系的建议。结果发现:中国现行土地资源分类体系存在的主要问题有三,一是分类层次少,基本上只有2个层次,类型数不足,难以准确反映全国复杂多样的土地利用类型和土地利用地域分异规律,实际应用成效受损;二是分类标准混乱,同一层次存在形式分类标准和功能分类标准并存的现象,科学性和逻辑严密性不足;三是有些地类的分类标准不明确,使部分地类没有了归属,造成无类可分,与用地分类设置“不重不漏”的原则相悖。为此,提出了完善中国土地资源分类体系的相关建议,一是未来的土地资源分类体系修订须要切实坚持地类划分的6条基本原则;二是可以借鉴英美等国较成熟的4个层次分类经验,并具体提出了四级制的中国土地资源分类系统基本框架;三是认为可以参考俄罗斯的经验,将全国土地分类标准体系上升为国家法律法规,全面提升全国土地资源分类体系的严肃性与权威性。

关键词: 土地资源, 分类体系, 土地利用, 土地资源调查, 土地资源管理

Abstract:

Constructing a scientific, reasonable, and feasible land resource classification system is the premise and foundation for effectively carrying out land resources survey, correctly making land resource development and rehabilitation planning, and scientifically managing land resources. Based on the definition and connotation of land resource classification, this study compared six representative land resource classification systems internationally and eight land classification systems in China, analyzed the main problems of China’s current land resource classification system, and put forward some recommendations for improving the classification system of land resources in China. The results indicate that there are three main problems in China’s current land resource classification systems. First, the current systems may not be able to accurately reflect the complex and diverse land use types and the regional differentiation of land use due to the two land use classification levels and insufficient land use types, which compromises the actual application effect of land resource classification as a result. Second, land resource classification standards are sometimes confusing, with the form classification standards and functional classification standards coexisting in the same classification level and classifications lacking scientific and logical rigor. Third, the classification standards of some land use types are unclear, and some land use types have no corresponding categories in the classification systems, which is contrary to the principle of “no repetition and no omission” in land use classification setting. The following recommendations were put forward to improve the classification system of land resources in China. First, future revision of land resource classification system should adhere to the six basic principles of land use classification in China. Second, it is practicable to learn from the experience of the four levels of classification in the United Kingdom and the United States, and we put forward the basic framework of China’s land resource classification system with four levels. Third, it is necessary to upgrade the national land use classification standard system to national laws and regulations referring to Russian’s experience, and thereby comprehensively enhance the seriousness and authority of the national land resource classification system.

Key words: land resources, classification system, land use, land resource survey, land resource management