资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (11): 2147-2159.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.01

• 自然资源分类专栏 •    下一篇

自然资源分类:从理论到实践、从学理到管理

封志明1,2,3(), 肖池伟1,2()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3.自然资源部资源环境承载力评价重点实验室,北京 101149
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-03 修回日期:2021-07-16 出版日期:2021-11-25 发布日期:2022-01-27
  • 通讯作者: 肖池伟,男,湖北荆州人,博士,副研究员,研究方向为资源地理与边境地理。E-mail: xiaocw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:封志明,男,河北平山人,博士,研究员,研究方向为资源开发与区域发展,旁及资源科学综合研究的理论与方法。E-mail: fengzm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK1006)

Classification of natural resources: From theory to practice and from principle to management

FENG Zhiming1,2,3(), XIAO Chiwei1,2()   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 101149, China
  • Received:2021-05-03 Revised:2021-07-16 Online:2021-11-25 Published:2022-01-27

摘要:

自然资源分类对自然资源管理和资源科学学科体系建设与发展具有重要科学价值与现实意义。基于自然资源的科学内涵,通过追踪公开发表的中英文文献,从理论到实践,系统梳理与对比分析了自然资源的传统与经典、学理与属性、法理与管理等分类特征及其发展。综述表明:自然资源分类聚焦于学理、法理和管理三方面,在学理分类上国内外保持相对一致性,但法理与管理分类上差异较大;现行分类存在体系繁多、边界重叠、交叉重复等问题。国际上,20世纪初期以前单门类或特定区域资源分类研究已相当深入,自然资源分类成为资源科学研究的主要内容之一;1960年代以来,日臻完善的资源科学学科体系推动自然资源分类研究进入新的发展时期,地理学、资源学、生态学、经济学、环境科学等分类思想“群星荟萃”,尽管迄今仍未形成统一的自然资源分类体系,但已构成自然资源学理分类的思想基础。在中国,自然资源分类研究大抵以20世纪50—60年代开展的自然资源综合科学考察为分水岭,单门类资源分类研究发展较快、综合分类体系初见端倪;系统性、综合性的分类研究始于20世纪末期,以中国自然资源学会成立及《中国资源科学百科全书》问世为重要标志,尤以自然资源属性和用途的多级分类方法应用广泛。目前国内总体处于统一自然资源分类探索阶段,在政策层面已得到自然资源部等部门的高度重视。鉴于此,有必要科学认识和厘清不同自然资源分类的特征与作用,以期对自然资源分类标准化和自然资源管理现代化有所裨益。

关键词: 自然资源, 自然资源分类, 自然资源管理, 资源科学, 资源法学

Abstract:

The unification of classification standards of natural resources is of great significance for the integrated management of natural resources and development of Resources Science. Based on the scientific connotation of natural resources, this article compared and summarized the tradition and classics, theories and attributes, and jurisprudence and management of natural resources classifications and their evolution process. This preliminary review typically relied on the currently available historical English literature (including published papers, books, and reports) and some literature in Chinese. The review showed that the classification of natural resources mainly focuses on three aspects of theories, principles, and management. Compared with the first aspect, the latter two of classifications showed larger differences in China and internationally. In particular, the existing natural resources classification cannot well avoid the overlap of natural resource management and the classification standards are not uniform. Internationally, many scholars have conducted in-depth studies and analyses on single category or specific region of resources classification in the early 1990s. Then new developments were achieved in Geography, Ecology, Resources Science, Economics, and Environmental Science in the 1960s. Overall, international methodologies provide a basis for the classification of natural resources in China, although there is still a lack of a standard set of classification theories. In China, the massive comprehensive surveys of natural resources (1950s-1960s) are a turning point in the study on the classification of natural resources. Thereafter, research on single category natural resources classification (e.g., land resources and water resources) has developed rapidly, while comprehensive classification remains sparse, sporadic, and scattered. It was not until the late 1990s that the establishment of the China Society of Natural Resources (1983) and the publication of China Encyclopedia of Resources Science (2000) symbolized the born of systematic and comprehensive classification of natural resources in China. In particular, the multilevel classification method based on the uses and attributes of natural resources is widely used. At present, studies related to the integrated classification of natural resources in China are at their developing stage, and the unified classification system has gained much attention from national decision-making departments of the Ministry of Natural Resources the People’s Republic of China. In view of the situation, it is necessary to recognize and clarify the characteristics and functions of different classifications of natural resources for standardization and modernization of management and classification of natural resources.

Key words: natural resources, natural resources classification, natural resources management, resources science, resources law