资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (10): 2026-2041.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.10.08

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

命令控制型和市场激励型环境规制对造林面积的影响——来自中国县级层面的准自然实验证据

潘丹()   

  1. 江西财经大学经济学院,南昌 330013
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-05 修回日期:2021-04-27 出版日期:2021-10-25 发布日期:2021-12-25
  • 作者简介:潘丹,女,江西宜春人,教授,主要从事农业经济和资源环境经济研究。E-mail: pandan@jxufe.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中共中央组织部国家“万人计划”青年拔尖人才项目;国家自然科学基金项目(71673123);国家自然科学基金项目(71863016);国家社会科学基金重大项目(20ZDA045)

The impact of command-and-control and market-based environmental regulations on afforestation area: Quasi-natural experimental evidence from county data in China

PAN Dan()   

  1. School of Economics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang 330013, China
  • Received:2020-12-05 Revised:2021-04-27 Online:2021-10-25 Published:2021-12-25

摘要:

命令控制型和市场激励型环境规制,孰能更有效地提升造林面积从而更好地保护森林生态环境一直存在争议。本文利用国家重点生态功能区政策这一命令控制型环境规制,和生态转移支付政策这一市场激励型环境规制作为准自然实验,基于2006—2016年1372个县级数据,采用双重差分法识别了这两类环境规制对造林面积影响的因果效应及政策相对有效性。研究结论如下:①与命令控制型环境规制相比,市场激励型环境规制对造林面积的影响更为显著且具有长期效果。表现为国家重点生态功能区政策使造林面积提升了6.7%,但该效应随着时间推移呈现出下降的趋势;生态转移支付政策使造林面积提升了8.2%,且该效应随着时间推移逐步增强。②异质性分析发现,初始造林面积较高和经济发展水平较高的县表现出更高的造林面积提升效应。③进一步的成本收益估算表明,国家重点生态功能区和生态转移支付政策通过提高造林面积带来的环境健康效应分别为5926.11亿元和7256.14亿元,是其减少财政收入所产生的经济成本的2.19和1.92倍。本文结论有助于我国制定长期有效的森林环境规制政策。

关键词: 造林面积, 命令控制型环境规制, 市场激励型环境规制, 国家重点生态功能区, 生态转移支付, 双重差分法, 准自然实验

Abstract:

There has been controversy over the relative effectiveness of heterogeneous environmental regulations—command-and-control environmental regulations and market-based environmental regulations—on afforestation area improvement. Employing the difference-in-differences method, this study took advantage of two Chinese policies—the National Key Ecological Functional Areas Policy (NKEFAP), which can be regarded as a command-and-control regulation, and the Ecological Transfer Payment Policy (ETPP), which can be viewed as a market-based regulation—as quasi-natural experiments to delve into the treatment effects of these two types of environmental regulations on afforestation area improvement. We collected data from 1372 counties in China during 2006-2016. The results show that: (1) Both the NKEFAP and ETPP can improve the afforestation area, but the effect of the ETPP was higher than the NKEFAP. Specifically, the NKEFAP increased afforestation areaby 6.7%, while the ETPP increased afforestation area by 8.2% and the effect increased over time. (2) The heterogeneity analyses found that the impact of the NKEFAP and ETPP on afforestation area was greater for counties with better initial afforestation area and high economic development levels. (3) Further cost-benefit analysis indicates that the total health benefit from reduced mortality due to NKEFAP and ETPP was RMB 592.611 billion and 725.614 billion yuan, respectively, which is 2.19 and 1.92 times the cost of reducing fiscal revenue. The conclusions of this study can contribute to the formulation of long-term effective forest environmental regulation policies in China.

Key words: afforestation area, command-and-control environmental regulation, market-based environmental regulation, National Key Ecological Functional Areas, Ecological Transfer Payment, difference-in-differences method, quasi-natural experiment