资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (10): 1990-2002.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.10.05

• 资源经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同补贴方式对中国农村低收入家庭食物安全改善效果比较

高杨1(), 郑志浩2()   

  1. 1.南京财经大学粮食和物资学院,南京 210003
    2.中国农业大学经济管理学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-08 修回日期:2021-08-31 出版日期:2021-10-25 发布日期:2021-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 郑志浩,男,山东潍坊人,博士,教授,研究方向为食物消费与粮食安全。E-mail: zhihao.zheng@cau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:高杨,女,山东乳山人,博士,讲师,研究方向为食物消费与营养健康。E-mail: 9120201044@nufe.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国农业大学2115人才工程项目

Comparison of the effects of different subsidy forms on improving food security of low-income rural households in China

GAO Yang1(), ZHENG Zhihao2()   

  1. 1. Institute of Food and Strategic Reserves, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210003, China
    2. College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2021-03-08 Revised:2021-08-31 Online:2021-10-25 Published:2021-12-25

摘要:

2020年后,缓解相对贫困的长效机制将从以往的“扶贫”战略向“防贫”战略转变,亟需构建新型社会救助制度,改善农村低收入家庭的食物安全,推动长效减贫。本文基于2012—2018年中国农业科学院全国农村微观经济数据,估计了农村低收入家庭的卡路里、宏量营养素和4种关键微量营养素的收入弹性,利用所得弹性估值模拟了实现不同营养目标所需的现金转移支付金额,利用食物与营养的转换关系模拟了实现不同营养目标所需的实物转移支付金额。研究结果表明:①大部分营养素的收入弹性偏小。②实物转移支付比现金转移支付能够更为有效地改善农村低收入家庭的食物与营养安全。③补贴成本相同的条件下,主副食相结合的实物转移支付方式相较于其他形式的实物转移支付,可更加均衡地改善低收入人群的营养状况。进入后扶贫时代,我国可以考虑建立当前许多国家(如美国、印度、埃及等)实施的实物转移支付制度,有针对性地保障低收入家庭的食物和营养安全,改善低收入人群的营养均衡状况。

关键词: 现金转移支付, 实物转移支付, 营养素-收入弹性, 农村低收入家庭, 食物安全, 营养状况, 中国

Abstract:

After 2020, the long-term mechanism to alleviate relative poverty will be transformed from the previous strategy of “poverty alleviation” to the strategy of “poverty prevention”. It is urgent to build a new social assistance system to improve food security for low-income households in rural areas and promote long-term poverty reduction. This study estimated the income elasticities of calorie, macronutrients, and four key micronutrients for low-income rural households using China’s Rural Microeconomic Data from 2012 to 2018 collected by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The obtained elasticity estimates were used to simulate the amount of cash transfers required to achieve different nutritional goals, and the conversion relationship between food and nutrition was used to simulate the amount of in-kind transfers required to achieve the nutritional goals. The results show that: (1) The income elasticities of most nutrients are small. (2)In-kind transfers can improve the food and nutrition security of low-income rural households more effectively than cash. (3) Under the condition of the same subsidy cost, the combination of staple and non-staple food can more effectively improve the nutritional balance of low-income residents. Entering the post-poverty era, China can consider establishing in-kind transfer system currently implemented by many countries (such as the United States, India, Egypt) to ensure the food and nutrition security of low-income residents and improve their nutritional balance.

Key words: cash transfer, in-kind transfer, income elasticities of nutrients, low-income rural households, food security, nutritional status, China