资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 1918-1931.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.16

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    

美国“湿地信用”评估与交易及对中国湿地修复的启示

迂婕1(), 李京梅1,2()   

  1. 1.中国海洋大学经济学院,青岛 266100
    2.中国海洋大学海洋发展研究院,青岛 266100
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-06 修回日期:2021-04-09 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 李京梅,女,河北冀县人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为资源、环境与贸易政策。E-mail: jingmeili66@163.com
  • 作者简介:迂婕,女,山东淄博人,博士研究生,研究方向为海洋经济与资源可持续利用研究。E-mail: yujie1987828@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(16ZDA049);中国海洋发展研究会重点项目(CAMAZD201908)

Implications of the evaluation and transaction of “wetland credit” in the United States for wetland restoration in China

YU Jie1(), LI Jingmei1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Economics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
    2. Institute of Marine Development, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
  • Received:2020-11-06 Revised:2021-04-09 Online:2021-09-25 Published:2021-11-25

摘要:

引入湿地修复第三方、运用市场交易手段实现湿地修复和等效补偿是湿地生态管理模式的创新。湿地信用是湿地修复等价交换的媒介物,科学评估湿地信用并完成湿地功能的等效交易,是实施生态修复、保障湿地规模和生态系统服务功能不下降的技术依据。本文系统梳理了美国湿地修复补偿中基于面积规模和基于生态系统服务功能两类湿地信用评估模型与参数,阐释湿地市场化等效补偿交易规则与交易价格制定。研究发现:①两类湿地信用评估方法同时兼顾了生态服务的功能性和市场交易的灵活性,是湿地信用评估的有效手段;②湿地信用交易价格受建设成本、交易时效等影响,是在湿地修复市场供需关系中形成的均衡价格;③设定市场交易规则,制定规范的修复方式,是实现交易生态等效的重要保障。中国应逐步培育湿地修复第三方产业、探索湿地修复市场化补偿模式、开展湿地修复绩效评估,探索和完善如何保障与生态系统服务对等的湿地等效评估技术,为中国开展生态修复市场化改革及湿地修复绩效评价提供科学依据和技术支撑。

关键词: 湿地信用, 湿地修复, 评估方法, 等效交易, 市场化补偿

Abstract:

The introduction of a third party for wetland restoration and the use of market transactions is a medium of equivalent exchange in wetland restoration. Scientific evaluation of wetland credit provides a technical support to sustain the spatial scales and ecosystem service functions of wetlands and is a key link in establishing wetland restoration market transactions. In this study, the wetland credit evaluation models and parameters were systematically reviewed based on the spatial scales and ecosystem service functions in wetland restoration compensation of the United States. The wetland market-based compensation transaction rules and the pricing for transactions are expounded and analyzed. This research found that: First, the two kinds of wetland credit assessment methods simultaneously take into account the functionality of ecosystem services and the flexibility of market transactions, providing an effective means for wetland credit assessment. Second, the prices in wetland credit transactions are subject to construction costs, transaction timing, and so on, and the equilibrium prices are formed based on the supply and demand balance of wetland restoration market. Third, market trading rules should be set up and standardized restoration methods should be devised in order to ensure the ecological equivalent compensation transactions as much as possible. China should gradually cultivate the wetland restoration third-party industry, and explore market-oriented compensation models for wetland restoration. It should also advance the performance evaluation of wetland restoration, and explore and improve ecological equivalent compensation assessment techniques for securing ecological services. These efforts can help to provide a scientific basis and technical support for the market-oriented reform of ecological restoration and wetland restoration performance evaluation in China.

Key words: wetland credit, wetland restoration, evaluation methods, equivalent trading, market-oriented compensation