资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 1876-1888.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.13

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

农村劳动力老龄化及其家庭结构差异对农地转出决策的影响

王杰(), 蔡志坚(), 秦希   

  1. 南京林业大学经济管理学院,南京 210037
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-23 修回日期:2021-01-16 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 蔡志坚,女,福建漳平人,博士,教授,博导,主要研究方向为林业经济政策研究。E-mail: janecai69@njfu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王杰,男,安徽池州人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为土地问题与政策研究。E-mail: wangjie@njfu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(17YJA790004);江苏高校哲学社会科学研究重点项目(2018 SJZDI099)

Impact of aging rural labor force and household structure on the decision to transfer farmland

WANG Jie(), CAI Zhijian(), QIN Xi   

  1. College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
  • Received:2020-10-23 Revised:2021-01-16 Online:2021-09-25 Published:2021-11-25

摘要:

农地规模经营是实现现代农业的主要路径之一,探究劳动力老龄化与家庭农地转出决策,对促进小农户与现代农业的有机衔接有着重要意义。基于改进的家庭生命周期模型和中国家庭金融调查数据,从家庭层面实证检验了家庭劳动力老龄化对农地流转的影响及其家庭结构的异质性。结果发现:①中国现在还存有近1/3的农村家庭有老年人参与劳动,随着老龄化人口占比越来越高,以老年人为农业生产主体的小农户未来也可能长期存在;②劳动力老龄化对农地转出决策具有抑制作用。相比其他家庭类型,有老年劳动力的家庭转出农地的可能性降低了约5%;③不同家庭内部结构下,劳动力老龄化对家庭农地转出决策的抑制作用存在差异,抑制作用大小表现为负担期Ⅰ>赡养期Ⅰ>空巢期Ⅰ。本文认为,对于高龄的老年劳动力,需进一步建立健全农村社会保障制度,促进这部分农户通过以转代耕的方式把农地转出至农业生产效率更高的经营主体;对于低龄的老年劳动力,需配合较为完善的农业社会化服务以实现提升农业生产效率与农地养老的双重目标。

关键词: 老龄化, 家庭生命周期, 农地流转, 劳动供给, 劳动消费比, CMP方法

Abstract:

Large-scale operation of farming is one of the main paths to modern agriculture, and exploring the impact of aging rural labor force on the decision of transferring out family farmland has important implications for promoting the connection between smallholder farmers and modern agriculture. Based on the improved household life cycle model and data from the China Household Finance Survey, the impact of household labor force aging on farmland transfer and the difference of impact due to heterogeneity of household structure were empirically tested at the household level. The results find that: (1) nearly one-third of rural households in China still have elderly people involved in agricultural work, and with the increasing proportion of the aging population, small farmers with elderly people as the mainstay of agricultural production may also exist in the long run in the future. (2) The aging of the labor force is a disincentive for transferring out farmland. Compared with other household types, households with an older laborer are about 5% less likely to transfer out farmland. (3) The inhibitory effect of labor force aging on household farmland transfer differs under different household structures, and the magnitude of the inhibitory effect is raising family period Ⅰ> supporting family period Ⅰ> empty nest period Ⅰ. This article argues that for the older elderly labor force, it is necessary to further establish a sound rural social security system to promote this group of farmers to transfer their farmland to more productive operators instead of farming by themselves; for the younger elderly labor force, it is necessary to cooperate with more complete agricultural socialization services to achieve the dual goals of improving agricultural productivity and supporting elderly livehoods with farmland.

Key words: aging, household life cycle, farmland transfer, labor supply, labor-consumption ratio, CMP approach