资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 1821-1833.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.09

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

小农户与新型农业经营主体的灌溉用水效率及其影响因素比较

许朗(), 陈杰, 刘晨()   

  1. 南京农业大学经济管理学院,南京 210095
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-23 修回日期:2020-10-18 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘晨,女,安徽淮南人,硕士,主要从事技术经济管理研究。E-mail: liu_chvip@126.com
  • 作者简介:许朗,男,江苏南京人,教授,主要从事农业经济管理研究。E-mail: xulang@njau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71973065);国家自然科学基金项目(71573126)

Comparison of irrigation efficiency of smallholder farmers and new agricultural operators and influencing factors

XU Lang(), CHEN Jie, LIU Chen()   

  1. College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
  • Received:2020-03-23 Revised:2020-10-18 Online:2021-09-25 Published:2021-11-25

摘要:

基于对黄淮海平原2017年的实地调研数据,选取冬小麦作为研究对象,应用随机前沿模型对小农户和种粮大户、家庭农场与农民专业合作社3类新型农业经营主体冬小麦的农业灌溉用水效率进行测算,并运用Tobit模型探究影响不同农业经营主体农业灌溉用水效率的因素。研究发现:①小农户、种粮大户、家庭农场和农民专业合作社样本中农业灌溉用水效率值的差异较大。家庭农场和农民专业合作社的农业灌溉用水效率值集中在70%以上的水平,而小农户集中在10%~30%的水平;②结合各个农业经营主体的技术效率可知,小农户和新型农业经营主体的农业灌溉用水效率均有一定的提高空间;③小农户和新型农业经营主体在农业灌溉用水效率的影响因素方面有显著的不同,农业收入占比、用水成本和是否采用灌溉技术等因素对所有农业经营主体的农业灌溉用水效率都会有正向影响。在新型农业经营主体中,农户的年龄、灌溉面积、灌溉设施等因素能够影响其农业灌溉用水效率,但是对于小农户的农业灌溉用水效率无显著的影响。小农户是促进节水灌溉技术应用和提高农业灌溉用水效率的重要对象。加快传统农户向新型农业经营主体转型、加大公共服务建设等措施有助于农业灌溉用水效率的提高。

关键词: 小农户, 新型农业经营主体, 灌溉用水效率, 随机前沿模型(SFA), 黄淮海平原

Abstract:

New agricultural operators are the main force of agricultural development in China. Based on the field investigation data of the North China Plain area, this study selected winter wheat as the research object, applied a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model to calculate the irrigation water use efficiency of winter wheat with different agricultural operators, and used the Tobit model to explore the factors that affect the irrigation water use efficiency of different subjects. The study found that there are great differences in irrigation water use efficiency of smallholder farmers, large grain growers, family farms, and agricultural cooperatives, and the irrigation water use efficiency values of farmers in family farms and agricultural cooperatives are mostly concentrated at the level of more than 70%. On the other hand, smallholder farmer irrigation water use efficiency values are concentrated at the level of 10% to 30%. Combined with the technical efficiency of various agricultural operators, we can see that the irrigation water use efficiency of smallholder farmers and new agricultural operators have a certain space to improve; significant differences exist in the factors that affect irrigation water use efficiency of smallholder farmers and new agricultural operators, such as the level of education and labor force; and the proportion of agricultural income, water cost, and adoption of advanced irrigation technology have a positive impact on the irrigation water use efficiency of all agricultural operators. Among the new agricultural operators, farmers’ age, irrigation area, irrigation facilities, and training measures can improve their irrigation water use efficiency, but have no significant impact on the irrigation water use efficiency of smallholder farmers. Smallholder farmers should be an important target to promote the application of water-saving irrigation technology and improve the efficiency of irrigation water use. Measures such as speeding up the transformation of traditional farmers to a new type of agricultural operator and increasing the development of public services will help to improve the efficiency of irrigation water use.

Key words: smallholder farmers, new agricultural management entities, irrigation water use efficiency, stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), North China Plain