资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 1778-1793.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.06

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

三重属性约束的承载力视角下中国省际水资源利用效率测度

张凯(), 陆海曙, 陆玉梅   

  1. 江苏理工学院商学院,常州 213001
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-10 修回日期:2021-03-15 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-11-25
  • 作者简介:张凯,男,新疆乌鲁木齐人,博士,讲师,研究方向为水资源经济,水权交易。E-mail: zhangkai@jsut.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金青年项目(19CJY018)

Measurement of inter-provincial water resource use efficiency in China from the perspective of carrying capacity with triple attribute constraints

ZHANG Kai(), LU Haishu, LU Yumei   

  1. Business School, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001, China
  • Received:2020-08-10 Revised:2021-03-15 Online:2021-09-25 Published:2021-11-25

摘要:

中国结构性缺水和资源型缺水“双缺”现象共存,亟需有效提高水资源利用效率。本文选取“资源禀赋-社会经济-生态环境”三重属性约束下的水资源承载力作为投入变量,构建无需强制性调整环境因素和统计噪音影响的RAM-SFA-RAM组合效率测度模型,基于中国31个省份2003—2017年面板数据进行实证研究。结果表明:①选取三重属性约束下的水资源承载力测度水资源利用效率更贴合研究区域的实际情况,中国水资源承载力在研究期内具有稳步增长态势,呈现东低西高、北低南高分布格局;②环境规制因素对投入变量过剩松弛和产出变量不足松弛具有不同程度的影响,R&D经费支出对劳动力投入过剩的松弛始终为负向影响,人口密度对投入和产出变量松弛的影响呈现窄幅正负波动,植被覆盖率对投入和产出变量松弛均为正向影响;③在剔除统计噪音和环境规制影响后,中国南方大部分省份的水资源利用效率值有所提升,北方大部分省份有所降低,表明统计噪音和环境规制因素对不同省份的影响具有差异性。因此,在制定政策时应当因地制宜、因省施策,同时需完善水资源管理监管制度,积极构建水权交易市场促使水资源市场化配置“流动”。

关键词: 水资源利用效率, 承载力, 三重属性, 幅度调整测度(RAM), 随机前沿分析(SFA), 环境因素

Abstract:

The coexistence of structural water shortage and resource-based water shortage in China calls for effective improvement of water resource use efficiency. This study selected the water resources carrying capacity constrained by the triple attributes of resource endowment-social economic condition-ecological environment as the input variable, constructed a range-adjusted measure (RAM)-stochastic frontier analysis (SFA)-RAM combined efficiency measurement model without mandatory adjustment of environmental factors and statistical noise, and conducted an empirical study based on the panel data of 31 provinces in China’s mainland from 2003 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The water resources carrying capacity under the triple attribute constraints is more suitable for the actual situation of the study area, and China’s water resources carrying capacity showed a steady growth trend in the study period, with a distribution pattern of low in the east and high in the west, and low in the north and high in the south; (2) Environmental regulation factors have different effects on the excess relaxation of input variables and the insufficient relaxation of output variables. The relaxation of R&D expenditure on labor input surplus is always negative, the impact of population density on the relaxation of input and output variables fluctuates in a narrow range, and vegetation coverage has a positive impact on the relaxation of input and output variables; (3) After excluding the impact of statistical noise and environmental regulation, the water resource utilization efficiency of most provinces in southern China has increased and that of most provinces in northern China has decreased, indicating that the impact of statistical noise and environmental regulation factors on different provinces is different. When making policies, we should adjust measures to local conditions and provincial policies, improve the water resources management supervision system, actively construct the water rights trading market, and promote the “flow” of water resources market allocation.

Key words: water resource use efficiency, carrying capacity, triple attributes, range adjusted measure (RAM), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), environmental factor