资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (8): 1675-1686.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.08.14

• 旅游资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际旅游服务贸易比较优势动态演进及中国贸易平衡贡献

文艳(), 孙根年(), 冯庆   

  1. 陕西师范大学地理科学与旅游学院,西安 710119
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-16 修回日期:2021-02-05 出版日期:2021-08-25 发布日期:2021-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 孙根年,男,陕西西安人,硕士,教授,研究方向为旅游经济运行及危机管理。E-mail: gnsun@snnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:文艳,女,四川绵阳人,博士研究生,讲师,研究方向为旅游服务贸易。E-mail: 245418394@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(2019CBWY002);国家社会科学基金项目(20BJY204);国家自然科学基金项目(41901144)

Dynamic change of comparative advantage of international tourism service trade and China’s contribution to trade balance

WEN Yan(), SUN Gennian(), FENG Qing   

  1. School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
  • Received:2020-10-16 Revised:2021-02-05 Online:2021-08-25 Published:2021-10-25

摘要:

旅游服务贸易是发达国家与发展中国家共存的典型产业,掌握其比较优势分布格局有助于为缓解国际贸易发展不均衡寻找新的突破口。因此,本文以23个发达国家与28个发展中国家为研究对象,根据2000—2018年各国旅游服务贸易相关数据,利用显示性比较优势指数、净出口显示性比较优势指数以及其变动幅度与变动方向,对比分析发达国家与发展中国家旅游服务贸易比较优势的差异与演变特点。结果发现:①在旅游服务贸易中高水平比较优势的梯队中,发展中国家的数量呈增长趋势,这说明发展中国家参与旅游服务贸易国际专业化分工的规模与层次均有所提升;②大部分发达国家与发展中国家旅游服务贸易比较优势呈“强者愈强,弱者愈弱”的动态演进特点,但仍有少数国家偏离此规律,如波兰、捷克等发达国家,以及中国、马来西亚、缅甸等发展中国家;③中国旅游服务贸易比较优势则呈明显的波动性下降趋势,并已进入比较劣势等级。进一步分析中国服务贸易各部门贸易平衡贡献指数发现,旅游服务贸易是影响服务贸易国际收支平衡最重要的部门之一。本文研究结论对于引导全球旅游服务贸易相对均衡发展、优化中国国际旅游资源配置具有一定的指导意义。

关键词: 旅游服务贸易, 国际专业化分工, 比较优势指数, 平均变动幅度, 贸易平衡

Abstract:

Tourism service trade is a typical industry that can develop in both developed and developing countries. Examining the distribution pattern of its comparative advantages helps to find a new breakthrough point for alleviating the imbalance of international trade development. Therefore, taking 23 developed countries and 28 developing countries as the research objects, this study used the data related to tourism service trade of each country from 2000 to 2018 and measured the revealed comparative advantage index, the net export revealed comparative advantage index, and the range and direction of changes, and compared and analyzed the differences and characteristics of change of comparative advantages of tourism service trade between the two camps. The findings are as follows. (1) In the echelon of high-level comparative advantage in tourism service trade, the number of developing countries is increasing, which shows that the scale and level of developing countries’ participation in international specialization of tourism service trade have been improved; (2) The comparative advantage of tourism service trade between most developed countries and developing countries showed the dynamic change characteristics of “the strong ones get stronger, and the weak ones get weaker”, and a few countries deviate from this rule, such as Poland and the Czech Republic among the developed countries, and China, Malaysia, and Myanmar among the developing countries; (3) The comparative advantage of China’s tourism service trade showed a clear but fluctuating downward trend, and has entered a state of comparative disadvantage. Further analysis of the trade balance contribution index of various sectors of service trade found that China’s tourism service trade played a decisive role in the balance of payments of service trade. In short, the tourism service trade provides important opportunities for developing countries to participate in international trade, and plays a positive role in balancing global economic development between the developed and developing countries.

Key words: tourism service trade, international specialized division of labor, comparative advantage index, average change range, trade balance