资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (8): 1605-1614.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.08.08

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

农户兼业对粮食生产效率的非线性影响

黄炎忠1,2(), 罗小锋1,4(), 李兆亮2,3, 刘迪1,3   

  1. 1.华中农业大学经济管理学院,武汉 430070
    2.武汉工程大学法商学院,武汉 430070
    3.湖北农村发展研究中心,武汉 430070
    4.华中农业大学农村可持续发展研究中心,武汉 430070
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-09 修回日期:2021-01-30 出版日期:2021-08-25 发布日期:2021-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 罗小锋,男,湖北武汉人,教授,研究方向为农村区域发展。E-mail: luoxiaofeng@mail.hzau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:黄炎忠,男,湖北咸宁人,博士研究生,研究方向为农业资源与环境经济。E-mail: 714912452@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(72073048);国家自然科学基金青年项目(71803145);农业农村部软科学项目(202007)

Nonlinear effect of farmers’ off-farm employment on grain production efficiency

HUANG Yanzhong1,2(), LUO Xiaofeng1,4(), LI Zhaoliang2,3, LIU Di1,3   

  1. 1. College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    2. School of Law and Business,Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
    3. Hubei Rural Development Research Center, Wuhan 430070, China
    4. Research Center for Rural Sustainable Development, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Received:2020-10-09 Revised:2021-01-30 Online:2021-08-25 Published:2021-10-25

摘要:

农业生产的季节性特征使得农户兼业已经成为我国农民分化的重要趋势。本文基于长江流域湖北、江西和浙江3省822份水稻种植户调查数据,利用IV-Tobit和门槛效应模型论证了农户兼业对粮食生产效率的非线性影响,并从时间、资金与技术要素投入解析其作用机理。研究表明:①农户兼业对粮食生产效率具有非线性影响,农户兼业时长超过8.35个月时,兼业行为对粮食生产效率的影响方向会发生改变;②短期兼业与县域范围内近距离兼业将有助于粮食生产效率提升;③农户兼业行为主要通过增加农业生产资金与技术投入来提升粮食生产效率。因此,在客观认识和接受农户“农忙务农、农闲务工”兼业身份的同时,不仅要鼓励发展县域经济,实现农民就近转移就业,还要积极培育农业社会化服务组织,引导长时间兼业农户退出农业生产。研究结论可为充分客观地评价现阶段我国粮食生产中的农户兼业行为提供一定的理论和实证依据。

关键词: 粮食安全, 农户兼业, 外出务工, 粮食生产效率, 非线性影响, 门槛回归, 长江流域

Abstract:

Due to the seasonal characteristics of agricultural production, it has become an important trend for agricultural producers to engage in both agricultural and non-agricultural activities. Based on the sample data of 822 rice growers from Hubei, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang provinces in the Yangtze River Basin, this study empirically analyzed the nonlinear effects of off-farm employment on grain production efficiency by using the IV-Tobit and threshold effect models. The mechanism of impact was analyzed from labor time, capital, and technology input. The results show that some off-farm employment of farmers will not affect the normal production of agriculture, but is conducive to the improvement of grain production efficiency. Specifically, first of all, the part-time employment of farmers has a nonlinear impact on grain production efficiency, and the duration of off-farm employment should not exceed 8.35 months. Second, the short-term and short-distance off-farm employment will help to improve the efficiency. Third, farmers’ off-farm employment improves grain production efficiency mainly through the intermediary path of increasing agricultural production capital and technology input. Therefore, on the basis of understanding and accepting farmers’ off-farm employment as their new identity, we should not only encourage the development of county economy and realize the localized transfer and employment of farmers, but also actively cultivate and develop agricultural service organizations to guide farmers who engage in long-term off-farm employment to withdraw from agricultural production. The conclusions provides a certain theoretical and empirical basis for fully and objectively evaluating the off-farm employment of farmers in the process of grain production in China.

Key words: food security, farmers’, off-farm employment, migrant work, grain production efficiency, nonlinear effect, threshold regression, Yangtze River Basin