资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 1492-1508.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.17

• 宅基地价值功能与退出效应 • 上一篇    

农村宅基地使用权多元价值分段偏离测度

夏方舟(), 鲁平贞()   

  1. 中国人民大学公共管理学院,北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-21 修回日期:2021-08-01 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 鲁平贞,女,云南昆明人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为土地产权与政策。E-mail: lupingzhen@ruc.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:夏方舟,男,浙江衢州人,副教授,研究方向为土地经济与政策。E-mail: xiafangzhou@ruc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(72074217);国家自然科学基金项目(71704180);国家自然科学基金国际合作项目(71661137009)

Multi-value segmentation deviation measurement of rural homestead use right

XIA Fangzhou(), LU Pingzhen()   

  1. School of Public Administration and Policy, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2021-04-21 Revised:2021-08-01 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-08-27

摘要:

“同地同权同价”是构建城乡统一建设用地市场的重要目标,然而长期以来农村宅基地使用权的价值认知局限、流转障碍凸显、市场难以形成,使得农民宅基地财产权利显化困难,流转价格和功能价值存在较大偏离,相较于城市居住用地价格更是差距巨大。基于此,本文选取了287个北京郊区宅基地流转案例和534个北京城市居住用地交易案例,构建了宅基地使用权多元价值分段偏离测度框架,运用多功能价值评估与深度置信网络分析,测度了宅基地使用权实际流转价格、功能价值和城乡同权价值的“三元价值”和“两级偏离”。结果表明:①北京市农村宅基地使用权功能价值较流转价格平均高出8748.08元/m2,平均价值偏离度为63.14%,表现出了一定的“区域递减”空间分布特征,产生原因在于宅基地的功能和资格权的认知偏差,以及供需匹配度、市场完善度、政策外部性等诸多因素的综合影响;②农村宅基地使用权城乡同权价值较功能价值平均高出 27192.81元/m2,平均偏离度为68.32%,呈现出显著的“中心扩散”空间分布特征,主要原因在于城乡居住用地产权的完整度、明晰度和稳定度差异。因此,本文提出未来宅基地财产权利显化和价值充分盘活应该分两步进行,首先完善宅基地的“农村二级市场”,逐步纠正农民对宅基地的功能认知和增强资格权价值显化;其次对标城市居住用地构建“城乡统一市场”,通过不断完善宅基地产权权能,推进宅基地完整价值的进一步显化,推进实现城乡统一建设用地市场相对协调的“同地同权同价”。

关键词: 宅基地使用权, 功能价值, 城乡同权价值, 价值评估, 偏离测度, 北京市

Abstract:

“Same location with equal rights and equal price” is an ultimate goal of building a unified urban and rural construction land market. However, for a long time, the cognitive limitations of rural homestead use right, circulation obstacles, and the difficulty in forming a rural homestead market make it difficult to realize the value of rural homestead. There is a big deviation between the actual transfer price and the functional value of rural homestead, and there exists also a huge gap between rural homestead and urban homestead. Therefore, this study selected 287 cases of rural homestead and 534 cases of urban homestead in Beijing and built a measurement framework of segmented deviation of multiple values of rural homestead use right. The study used a multi-function model and deep belief network (DBN) to measure the “three-dimensional value” and “two-level deviation” of the actual transfer price, the functional value, and the urban-rural equal right value. The results show that: (1) The average difference between the functional value and actual transfer price of rural homestead use right in Beijing is 8748.08 yuan/m2, and the average value deviation is 63.14%, showing the spatial distribution characteristics of zonal decline, which may be caused by the cognitive deviation of the functions of rural homestead and citizenship rights, the comprehensive influence of supply-demand matching degree, market integrity, policy externality and other factors; (2) The average difference between the equal right value and functional value of rural homestead use right is 27192.81 yuan/m2, the average deviation is 68.32%, showing a significant spatial distribution feature of central diffusion, which may be caused by the differences in the integrity, clarity, and stability between urban and rural homestead use rights. Based on these results, this article proposed that in the future, the manifestation and realization of value of rural homestead should be carried out in two steps: First, improve the “rural secondary market” of rural homestead, gradually correct farmers’ cognition of the functions of rural homestead use right and the manifestation of qualification right; Second, according to urban property situation, build a “unified urban-rural market” by constantly improving the functions, promoting the further manifestation of the complete value of rural homestead, then realize the goal of “same location with equal rights and equal price” for a relatively coordinated unified urban and rural construction land market.

Key words: rural homestead use right, functional value, urban-rural equal right value, value evaluation, deviation measurement, Beijing