资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 1454-1466.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.14

• 宅基地价值功能与退出效应 • 上一篇    下一篇

宅基地多功能演变与形成机理

赵庆磊1,2(), 马雯秋3, 曲衍波4, 姜广辉2()   

  1. 1.曲阜师范大学地理与旅游学院,日照 276826
    2.北京师范大学地理科学学部自然资源学院,北京 100875
    3.中国农业大学工学院,北京 100083
    4.山东财经大学公共管理学院,济南 250014
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-21 修回日期:2021-08-11 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 姜广辉,男,山东东阿人,教授,博士生导师,从事土地评价、规划与可持续利用研究。E-mail: macrophage@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:赵庆磊,男,山东新泰人,讲师,从事土地评价、规划与整治研究。E-mail: zqlsdxt05@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(20&ZD090);国家自然科学基金项目(42071249);国家自然科学基金项目(42001199);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0405)

Multifunctional evolution and formation mechanism of rural homestead

ZHAO Qinglei1,2(), MA Wenqiu3, QU Yanbo4, JIANG Guanghui2()   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Tourism, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 276826, China
    2. School of Natural Resources, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3. College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
    4. School of Public Administration and Policy, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, Jinan 250014, China
  • Received:2021-04-21 Revised:2021-08-11 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-08-27

摘要:

探索宅基地功能变化规律可深化土地利用多功能研究,为制定切实有效的宅基地管理制度提供科学依据。本文构建了“社会保障—收益—留置”宅基地多功能分类体系,基于613处样本宅基地调查资料,运用核密度法和多分类Logistic回归模型分析了北京市平谷区宅基地多功能演变特征,揭示“农户—宅基地—村庄”多要素综合作用下宅基地功能形成机理。结果表明:①2005—2018年,宅基地社会保障功能呈显著弱化趋势,收益功能和留置功能则显示出增强态势,功能结构由83.2%:6.9%:9.9%变为71.8%:10.6%:17.6%。②社会保障功能在经济落后山区较强,空间形态由条—带状向片—面状集聚分布演变,体现出区域农户对其居住保障性的依赖;收益功能集聚在经济较好平原区及近郊半山区,分布格局由点状演化为点—带状扩展态势,以适应休闲农业、旅游等需要;而留置功能则在经济中等半山区强化,形态由片—面状向点—带状分散化布局,反映区域农户在外工作增多与对宅基地潜在价值的期望。③基于农户视角,区位、经济、地形等村庄特征是宅基地多功能形成的激发因素,家庭人口、收入的规模和结构等农户特征是宅基地功能形成的能动因素,宅基地位置、规模、建造年代等是宅基地功能发挥的限制因素。新型农村社区建设和宅基地制度改革中,应遵循宅基地功能演变与分化规律,按照农户—宅基地—村庄综合特征的差异分类施策。

关键词: 宅基地, 农户调研, 功能演变, 多分类Logistic回归模型, 形成机理, 北京市平谷区

Abstract:

Exploring the function change law of rural homestead can deepen the study of land use function change and provide a scientific basis for formulating an effective rural homestead management system. This paper constructs a multi-function classification system of “social security—profit—retention” for rural homestead. Based on the two-phase survey data of 613 typical farmer households, the kernel density method and multivariate logistic regression model are used to analyze the multifunction characteristics of rural homestead in typical counties in metropolitan suburbs. The formation of key factors reveals the formation mechanism of the function of rural homestead under the comprehensive action of "farmers-rural homestead-village". Research shows: (1) From 2005 to 2018, the social security function of rural homestead showed a significant weakening trend, while the profit function and retention function showed an increasing trend, the functional structure changed from 83.2%:6.9%:9.9% to 71.8%:10.6%:17.6. (2) The social security function has been continuously strengthened in the economically backward mountainous areas, it reflects the dependence of regional farmers on their residential security, and the spatial form has evolved from strip-band to patch-area. In order to meet the needs of leisure agriculture and tourism, the income function is concentrated in the plain area with good economy and the suburban mid-level mountains, and the distribution pattern evolves from point to point to strip expansion. However, the retention function is strengthened in mid-level mountainous areas, and the form is decentralized from piece-plane to point-band, which reflects the increase of rural households' working outside and their expectation on the potential value of rural homestead. (3) From the perspective of farmers household, village characteristics such as location, economy and terrain are the triggering factors of multifunctional formation of rural homestead; farmer households characteristics such as family members, the size and structure of revenue are active factors for multifunctional formation of rural homestead; the characteristics of rural homestead such as location, size and construction age are restrictive factors, which affect the degree and direction of the multifunctional evolution. In the construction of new rural communities and the reform of rural homestead system, it should follow the law of the evolution and differentiation of rural homestead, and take measures according to the difference system of the comprehensive characteristics of village-peasant household and rural homestead.

Key words: rural homestead, farmer households survey, function evolution, multinomial logistic regression, formation mechanism, Pinggu District of Beijing