资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 1419-1427.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.11

• 宅基地产权与退出机制 • 上一篇    下一篇

三权分置下宅基地发展权的权利结构与实现形式

鄂施璇(), 王兆林()   

  1. 重庆工商大学公共管理学院,重庆 400067
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-15 修回日期:2021-07-14 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 王兆林,男,山东省临沂人,博士,教授,研究方向为宅基地利用与管理。E-mail: wzhaolin@163.com
  • 作者简介:鄂施璇,女,黑龙江省鸡西人,博士,讲师,研究方向为宅基地利用与管理。E-mail: eshixuan@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(20BJY120);重庆市教委人文社会科学一般项目(21SKGH112);重庆工商大学校内项目(1951011)

Structure and realization of rural homestead development right under the Separation of Three Rights

E Shixuan(), WANG Zhaolin()   

  1. School of Public Administration, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067, China
  • Received:2021-04-15 Revised:2021-07-14 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-08-27

摘要:

三权分置政策为宅基地发展权的实现提供了制度空间,在法律层面设定宅基地发展权,探索构建其权利结构与实现形式,对深化宅基地制度改革、保障农民权益、增加农民财产性收入有重要意义。本文通过归纳总结及法理分析,系统阐释三权分置下宅基地发展权的权利设置必要性、内涵及法律属性,构建其权利结构与实现形式。结果表明:①三权分置下宅基地发展权指宅基地向新产业新业态及农村一二三产业融合发展用途扩展时,产生了超越其居住保障功能的宅基地发展性权利。宅基地发展权是动态财产权利,衍生于宅基地所有权及其使用权,其母体是宅基地所有权,法律属性上是民事权利(私权),它是一种新型用益物权;②宅基地发展权主体为混合主体,其中农民集体享有所有权派生的一级宅基地发展权、农户享有宅基地使用权派生的二级宅基地发展权、社会主体享有宅基地经营权派生的三级宅基地发展权。实体形态的宅基地及其发展潜能应被作为一个整体而称为宅基地发展权的权利客体。宅基地发展权的权利内容是其主体权利和义务的总和;③实现形式上应明确集体经济组织为宅基地所有权主体,赋予其完整权能;立法上将资格权纳入农民集体成员权,建立统计台帐制度;创新宅基地发展权转移的“经营性流转”及“共享共建”模式,对其发展权转移过程中的增值收益需兼顾农民集体、农户及社会主体。本文的结果对深化宅基地制度改革提供了理论参考及政策启示。

关键词: 三权分置, 宅基地发展权, 法理分析, 权利结构, 民事权利, 混合主体, 实现形式

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine and clarify the right structure and form of realization of rural homestead development under the Separation of Three Rights, which has important significance for promoting a new round of deepening the reform of rural homestead system, protecting farmers’ rights and interests, and increasing farmers’ property income. This study adopted an inductive summary and legal analysis method, systematically explained right necessity and connotation and legal attribute of rural homestead development under the Separation of Three Rights, and examined and clarified the right structure and form of realization of rural homestead development. The results show that: (1) Rural homestead development right under the Separation of Three Rights refers to the rural homestead development right beyond the function of residential security when rural homestead is expanded to new industries, new business forms, and the integrated development of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries. Rural homestead development right is a kind of dynamic property right derived from rural homestead ownership and its right to use, stemming from ownership, and its legal attribute is a civil right (private right) in legal term. It is a new usufructuary right; (2) Rural homestead development right subjects should be hybrid, where the collectives enjoy the first level rural homestead development right derived from ownership, farmers enjoy the secondary rural homestead development right derived from the use right, and social subjects enjoy the third level rural homestead development right derived from the management right. The material form of rural homestead and its development potential should be treated as a whole and act as the object of rural homestead development right. The content of rural homestead development right is the summation of its main rights and obligations; (3) The realization of rural homestead development right should define collective economic organizations as ownership subjects and endow rural homestead ownership with complete rights and powers; incorporate their qualification into collective membership rights through legislation, and establish a system for statistical accounting; innovate the business circulation and sharing and co-construction mode of the transfer of rural homestead development right. Distribution of the value-added income in the transfer process of rural homestead development right should take into account the interests of farmers’ collectives, farmers, and social subjects. The research of this paper provides theoretical reference and policy enlightenment for deepening the reform of rural homestead system.

Key words: Separation of Three Rights, rural homestead development right, legal analysis, right structure, civil rights, hybrid agent, realization form