资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 1387-1402.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.09

• 宅基地产权与退出机制 • 上一篇    下一篇

风险预期、市民化感知及农户认知对易地扶贫搬迁农户宅基地退出的影响

时鹏(), 余劲()   

  1. 西北农林科技大学经济管理学院,杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-03 修回日期:2021-07-12 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 余劲,男,湖北英山人,教授,研究方向为公共管理。E-mail: yujin@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:时鹏,男,陕西洛南人,博士研究生,研究方向为易地扶贫搬迁与农户减贫。E-mail: sp13572501917@outlook.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71373208);国家自然科学基金项目(71874139);国家重点研发计划“政府间国际科技创新合作”重点专项(2017YFE0181100);国家建设高水平大学公派研究生项目(201906300041)

Impact of risk expectation, citizenization perception, and farmers’ cognition on the relocated rural households’ homestead withdrawal

SHI Peng(), YU Jin()   

  1. College of Economics and Management, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
  • Received:2020-08-03 Revised:2021-07-12 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-08-27

摘要:

资金和土地问题是“后搬迁”时期易地扶贫搬迁接续推进农户减贫面临的两个重要约束条件,而搬迁农户宅基地退出是解决这一问题的关键。本文基于改进的计划行为理论,构建风险预期、市民化感知及农户认知对农户宅基地退出影响路径的理论框架,利用陕西省8县(区)1250份搬迁农户数据,采用混合结构方程模型进行检验,并分析了安置模式、农户年龄和政策认知的调节作用。结果表明:①风险预期和市民化感知对退出行为产生显著的直接影响,影响系数分别为-0.371和0.379,两者亦通过农户认知和退出意向的传导机制间接影响退出行为。②整体而言,宅基地退出行为受到农户认知的“自发性”、市民化感知的“政策协同性”和风险预期的“约束性”三重机制的影响。③分组结果显示:城镇化安置模式中,风险预期和市民化感知对退出行为的影响都更高;高龄组农户风险预期对行为态度和退出行为的约束性更强,而市民化感知的协同促进作用更低;政策认知会提高农户市民化感知对其退出行为的拉力,而降低风险预期的阻力。要实现宅基地顺利退出,在激活农户参与“自发性”的同时,通过升级农户市民化来提高搬迁对于宅基地退出的“协同性”拉动,同时通过就业扶持、优化搬迁前后社会保障制度的衔接等降低风险预期对宅基地退出的“约束性”作用。应根据不同的安置模式、不同农户年龄采取更加差异化的政策,不断提高农户的政策认知水平,从而精准、高效地推动搬迁农户退出宅基地。

关键词: 宅基地退出, 易地扶贫搬迁, 风险预期, 市民化感知, 计划行为理论, 混合结构方程模型, 陕西省

Abstract:

Funds and land are two important constraints for poverty alleviation-related relocation to continuously promote poverty reduction of the relocated rural households in the “post-relocation” period, and the key to address this issue is to withdraw from relocated households’ old homestead. This study constructed a theoretical framework of the path of impact of risk expectation, citizenization perception, and farmers’ cognition on farmers’ homestead exit based on the improved planned behavior theory, and used a hybrid structural equation model and the survey data of 1250 households from eight counties (districts) in Shaanxi Province to test the impact. We also tested the moderating effect of resettlement mode, age, and policy cognition. The results show that risk expectation and citizenization perception have a significant direct impact on exit behavior, which are -0.371 and 0.379, respectively, and they also indirectly affect exit behavior through the transmission mechanism of farmers’ cognition and exit intention. On the whole, homestead exit behavior is affected by three mechanisms: the spontaneity of farmers’ cognition, policy synergistic effect of the citizenization perception, and binding effect of risk expectation. The group test results show that in the urbanization resettlement mode, risk expectation and citizenization perception have a higher impact on exit behavior. Elderly farmers’ risk expectation has stronger constraint on behavior attitude and exit behavior, while their synergistic effect is lower. Policy cognition will increase the pulling effect of farmers’ citizenization perception on exit behavior, and reduce the resistance of risk expectation. So there are three ways to realize the smooth exit of homesteads. On the one hand, it is necessary to activate the “spontaneity” of farmers’ participation. On the other hand, it is important to enhance the synergistic effect of the relocation by strengthening famers’ citizenization perception and to reduce the binding effect of risk expectation by strengthening employment support and optimizing the convergence of social security system before and after resettlement. It is necessary to adopt more differentiated policies according to the resettlement modes and age of the farmers and continuously improve the policy cognition to efficiently promote the household homestead exit behavior.

Key words: homestead withdrawal, poverty alleviation-related relocation, risk expectation, citizenization perception, planned behavior theory, mixed SEM, Shaanxi Province