资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 1293-1306.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.02

• 宅基地退出模式与政策工具 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于“诊断—设计—结果”框架的农村宅基地退出模式原型分析

曲衍波1(), 柴异凡1, 朱伟亚2(), 平宗莉2, 宗海柠1, 王森2   

  1. 1.山东财经大学公共管理学院,济南 250014
    2.山东省国土空间规划院,济南 250014
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-23 修回日期:2021-04-17 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 朱伟亚,男,河北鹿泉人,研究员,从事土地利用评价与规划工作。E-mail: 425111018@qq.com
  • 作者简介:曲衍波,男,山东龙口人,博士,教授,博士生导师,从事农村土地利用转型与治理研究。E-mail: yanboqu2009@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    山东省社会科学基金项目(17CGLJ17);国家自然科学基金项目(42077434);国家自然科学基金项目(41771560);山东省高等学校“青年创新团队发展计划”项目(2019RWG016)

Archetype analysis of rural homestead withdrawal patterns based on the framework of “diagnosis-design-outcome”

QU Yanbo1(), CHAI Yifan1, ZHU Weiya2(), PING Zongli2, ZONG Haining1, WANG Sen2   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration and Policy, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, Jinan 250014, China
    2. Shandong Territorial and Spatial Planning Institute, Jinan 250014, China
  • Received:2021-02-23 Revised:2021-04-17 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-08-27

摘要:

农村宅基地退出作为农村土地制度改革的突破口,科学设计宅基地退出模式并有效识别其运行机制,是激发乡村发展活力和优化城乡要素配置的重要支点。本文以山东省为例,利用系统理论设计4种宅基地退出模式,基于“诊断—设计—结果”框架编制宅基地退出行动编码手册,运用原型分析方法识别不同宅基地退出模式的行动逻辑与运行过程,进而明晰不同宅基地退出模式的适用条件。研究表明:①综合农村居住环境改善和农户多层次需求导向的资产置换、货币补偿、以地养老和土地入股4种模式具有明显的“内核—外缘”性系统特征,适应了不同地区的农村发展需求。②不同宅基地退出模式的本质是以多元化的激励机制指引农户有序退出,表现出政府主导的资产置换激励、政村合作的经济性补偿激励、政企合作的以地养老激励和村企合作的土地入股激励等多类原型,并形成了差别化的运行过程和特定的适用条件。受地域环境差异、政策驱动转型和主体需求层次升阶影响,宅基地退出模式将随之变动和多样,在推广使用过程中应因地因时进行适当调整、择优用之,以适应不同地区农村宅基地管理和乡村发展的需要。

关键词: “诊断—设计—结果”框架, 农村宅基地退出, 原型分析, 模式比较, 山东省

Abstract:

Rural homestead withdrawal is a breakthrough in the reform of rural land system. It is essential to scientifically design homestead withdrawal models and effectively identify its operating mechanisms, in order to stimulate the vitality of rural development and optimize the allocation of urban and rural elements. Taking Shandong Province as an example and based on system theory to design four homestead withdrawal patterns, this study initially conceptualized the action for rural homestead withdrawal as the specific process by which diagnostic attributes, design attributes, and outcomes interact with each other. Therefore, a code-book was formed based on the diagnosis-design-outcome (DDO) framework. Second, the archetype analysis method was used to identify the action logic and operating mechanisms of different homestead withdrawal patterns. Finally, the applicable conditions of different withdrawal patterns were clarified according to some elements characterized by human-land relationship. The results show that: (1) The four homestead withdrawal models of asset exchange, monetary compensation, exchanging old-age service with homestead, and equity participation with homestead comprehensively consider the improvement of the rural living environment and the multi-level demands of farming households, and are characterized by the core-periphery spatial pattern, adapting to the needs of rural development in different regions. (2) The essence of different homestead withdrawal patterns is to guide farmers to exit in an orderly manner through a diversified incentive mechanism, showing many kinds of archetypes, such as the incentive of asset exchange under the guidance of the government, economic compensation incentive under the cooperation between the government and rural collectives, the incentive for exchanging old-age service with homestead under the cooperation of the government and enterprises, as well as the incentive for equity participation with homesteads under the collaboration of rural collectives and enterprises, and so on. Different homestead withdrawal patterns have differentiated operational processes and specific applicable conditions. Affected by differences in regional environments, policy-driven transformations, and the upgrading of farming households’ demand level, the withdrawal patterns of homesteads will be more diversified. In the process of dissemination and application, the models should be adjusted properly according to the differences and changes of system conditions, so as to meet the needs of rural homestead management and rural development in different areas.

Key words: diagnosis-design-outcome framework, rural homestead withdrawal, archetype analysis, pattern comparison, Shandong Province