资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (6): 1208-1221.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.06.12

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

1995—2015年中国北方边境样带土地利用时空格局演变及驱动因素

刘丹(), 李琳娜()   

  1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-10 修回日期:2020-08-12 出版日期:2021-06-25 发布日期:2021-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 李琳娜,女,湖南邵阳人,讲师,研究方向为土地利用、交通规划与城乡发展。E-mail: lilinna@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘丹,女,河南周口人,硕士生,研究方向土地利用和城乡发展。E-mail: liudan5626@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室开放基金项目(KF2018-01);国家自然科学基金项目(41701119);国家自然科学基金项目(42071227)

Spatiotemporal change and driving factors of land use in the northern border transect of China, 1995-2015

LIU Dan(), LI Linna()   

  1. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2020-06-10 Revised:2020-08-12 Online:2021-06-25 Published:2021-08-25

摘要:

随着“一带一路”倡议的推进,中国北方边境地区的战略地位日益显著,研究该区域的土地利用格局、过程与机理,对区域可持续发展至关重要。本文采用样带研究方法,基于1995年、2000年、2005年、2010年和2015年的土地利用/覆被数据,利用空间分析和多元回归分析揭示样带土地利用变化的时空格局演变及驱动因素。结果表明:①北方边境样带以林地、草地、水域、未利用地等生态保育用地为主,占比超过90%,20年间土地利用结构和空间格局变化较小。②研究期间,北方边境样带以城乡建设用地、粮食保障用地扩张和生态保育用地退化为主要特征,不同类型的土地利用/土地覆被变化表现出明显的时空差异,粮食保障用地、城乡建设用地扩张速度在2010年后显著加快,土地扩张模式逐渐由林草地开垦转向未利用地开发。③城镇化和经济发展是促进北方边境地区粮食保障用地和城乡建设用地扩张的主要因素,生态保育用地则受自然、气候、区位条件和农业技术水平的影响,在粮食保障用地和城乡建设用地主动式扩张过程中呈现被动减少趋势。同时,政策和制度的干预也是影响该区域土地利用变化的重要因素,作用于粮食保障用地和城乡建设用地的扩张和生态保育用地的保护恢复。总体而言,北方边境样带的生态保育用地虽然在政策和制度的干预下退化趋势有所减缓,但是,草地资源持续减少、水域面积缩减和未利用地不断开发等土地利用变化带来的生态环境危机仍然存在,影响该区域的可持续发展。

关键词: 中国北方边境地区, 样带, 土地利用变化, 时空格局, 驱动因素, 可持续发展

Abstract:

With the promotion of the Belt and Road initiative, the strategic position of the northern border region in China is increasingly significant. It is critical to study the land use pattern, process, and mechanism of change of this region for its sustainable development. Based on the land use/land cover change data in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, this study adopted the transect research method and applied spatial analysis and multiple linear regression to reveal the spatial-temporal pattern and driving factors of land use change in the northern border region. The main results are as follows. First, the northern border transect is dominated by ecological conservation land including forest land, grassland, water area, and unused land, accounting for more than 90% of the total area. The land use structure and spatial pattern had changed little in 20 years. Second, cultivated land and construction land expansion and ecological land degradation were the main characteristics of land use change in the region. Different types of land use/cover change in the northern border transect of China showed obvious temporal and spatial differences. Cultivated land and rural-urban construction land increased significantly after 2010. The pattern of land expansion gradually shifted from forest land and grassland conversion to the cultivation of unused land. Finally, urbanization and economic development were the main factors that promoted the expansion of cultivated land and construction land. Ecological land decreased passively in the process of active expansion of cultivated land and construction land, affected by natural, climatic, geographic, and agricultural technology level factors. Meanwhile, the intervention of policy and institution had a significant effect on the expansion of cultivated land and rural-urban construction land and ecological protection and restoration. The degradation of ecological land was contained overall, whereas risks of ecological environment deterioration such as the continued decline of grassland, shrinking water areas, and conversion of unused land in the northern border transect still exist.

Key words: northern border region of China, transect, land use change, spatiotemporal pattern, driving factors, sustainable development