资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (6): 1140-1152.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.06.07

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于多目标的中国食物消费结构优化

张翠玲1(), 强文丽1(), 牛叔文1,2, 王睿3, 张赫3, 成升魁4, 李凡1   

  1. 1.兰州大学资源环境学院,兰州 730000
    2.西部环境教育部重点实验室,兰州 730000
    3.天津大学建筑学院,天津 300072
    4.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-02 修回日期:2020-10-20 出版日期:2021-06-25 发布日期:2021-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 强文丽,女,甘肃白银人,博士,副教授,研究方向为可持续食物系统及其资源环境效应。E-mail: qiangwl@lzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张翠玲,女,陕西延安人,硕士研究生,研究方向为粮食安全与资源环境管理等。E-mail: zhangcl18@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC0704701);国家自然科学基金项目(41801192)

Options of Chinese dietary pattern based on multi-objective optimization

ZHANG Cuiling1(), QIANG Wenli1(), NIU Shuwen1,2, WANG Rui3, ZHANG He3, CHENG Shengkui4, LI Fan1   

  1. 1. College of Earth and Environmental Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou 730000, China
    3. School of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
    4. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-07-02 Revised:2020-10-20 Online:2021-06-25 Published:2021-08-25

摘要:

随着食物生产及消费系统的变革,可持续的食物消费已成为全球关注的焦点议题。1978—2017年中国人均食物消费结构发生显著变化,导致人均食物消费的水资源消耗量、耕地资源需求量和温室气体排放量均呈增加趋势。因此,本文利用多目标规划方法,在满足膳食营养需求的基础上,探讨经济及资源环境成本最小的食物消费结构。研究结果表明:①在仅考虑热量、蛋白质及脂肪等宏量营养素约束时,得到的食物消费结构较为单一,而加入微量营养素约束时,食物结构多样性显著增加,但食物消费比例仍需优化;在营养组成和食物结构双重约束下所得的食物类别及消费量均趋于合理。②优化的食物消费结构与中国当前消费相比,畜禽肉类在热量和蛋白质供给中的比重显著下降,豆与坚果类和奶类在蛋白质供给中的比重增加。③与中国当前及其他典型食物消费结构相比,优化的食物消费结构在满足营养的基础上,经济及资源环境成本均较低,表明该优化结构满足可持续食物消费的目标。④优化的食物消费结构将使中国人均食物消费的水资源消耗量、耕地资源消耗量、温室气体排放量将分别减少312.2 m3/年、256.0 m2/年、425.1 kg/年。中国的现状是农业资源日益稀缺,通过倡导合理的膳食结构,不仅能够有效减轻资源环境压力,而且对食物消费引发的各类健康隐患具有改善意义。

关键词: 食物安全, 经济成本, 资源环境成本, 可持续消费, 食物消费结构优化, 中国

Abstract:

With the transformation of the food production and consumption systems, sustainable food consumption has become a global concern. China’s per capita food consumption structure has changed significantly during 1978-2017, leading to an increase in water and arable land resource demand, as well as greenhouse gas emissions for per capita’s food consumption. Therefore, in this study, based on the multiple objective programming method, we explored diets that minimize economic and resources and environmental costs subject to nutrient constraints. The results show that diet compositions that minimize the economic and environmental costs while meeting macronutrient (calories, protein, fat, and fiber) requirements look singular. When the micronutrient constraints are imposed, the minimal cost diet seems more diversified. Nevertheless, these hypothetical diet patterns consisting of few product groups and need to be further optimized. Diet compositions would be more reasonable if the dual constraints of nutritional composition and food consumption were considered together. Compared with the current food consumption pattern of China, the optimized dietary pattern significantly reduces the nutritional supply from meat, and increase the proportion of beans and milk in protein supplies greatly. The optimized dietary pattern also has reasonable nutritional conditions and lower cost compared with the current and other typical food consumption patterns. It means that the optimized dietary pattern meets the goals of sustainable food consumption. Moreover, it would reduce the water use, arable land use, and greenhouse gas emissions by about 312.2 m3, 256.0 m2, and 425.1 kg per capita per year for China relating to food consumption. Considering the increasing shortage of agricultural resources in China, the optimized dietary pattern that offers substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce the resources and environmental stress and help prevent diet- related chronic non- communicable diseases.

Key words: food security, economic cost, resources and environmental cost, sustainable food consumption, optimization of dietary pattern, China