资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 974-986.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.05.11

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

“一带一路”国家粮食贸易下虚拟水和隐含能源流动

汪艺晗1,2(), 杨谨1(), 刘其芸1, 谭蕊1, 袁浩1,3   

  1. 1.中国地质大学(北京)经济管理学院,北京 100083
    2.北京大学深圳研究生院环境与能源学院,深圳 518055
    3.商务部国际贸易经济合作研究院,北京 100710
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-30 修回日期:2020-09-17 出版日期:2021-05-25 发布日期:2021-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨谨,女,山东临沂人,副教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为资源环境经济与政策。E-mail: yangjin@cugb.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:汪艺晗,女,浙江舟山人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为资源环境经济与政策。E-mail: wyh980714@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(71704164);教育部人文社会科学青年基金项目(17YJC790187);中国地质大学(北京)基本科研业务费专项(2652018248)

Virtual water and embodied energy transfer in grain trade across the countries along the “Belt and Road”

WANG Yihan1,2(), YANG Jin1(), LIU Qiyun1, TAN Rui1, YUAN Hao1,3   

  1. 1. School of Economics and Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
    2. School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China
    3. Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic Cooperation, Beijing 100710, China
  • Received:2020-06-30 Revised:2020-09-17 Online:2021-05-25 Published:2021-07-25

摘要:

“一带一路”倡议沿线国家在粮食国际贸易中发挥着日愈重要的作用,研究其粮食贸易带动的虚拟水和灌溉用能流动格局,能够为“一带一路”区域可持续的农业合作提供理论依据和有力参考。本文基于UN COMTRADE、FAOSTAT和水价值研究报告的数据,构建以“一带一路”沿线国家为主的粮食贸易及其隐含虚拟水和灌溉用能的流动网络,计算网络指标,并考察各国在网络中的地位和资源流动模式,分析网络社团结构。结果表明:①在粮食贸易网络中,俄罗斯、乌克兰、越南和泰国是虚拟水和灌溉用能出口国,土耳其、埃及、沙特阿拉伯和以色列是虚拟水和灌溉用能主要进口国。②存在一些粮食出口大国农业资源利用效率不高的现象,如俄罗斯,粮食作物灌溉过程消耗大量能源,粮食贸易会加重其农业用能使用负担,这表明目前粮食贸易引起的资源再分配情况还有待优化。③研究国家的虚拟水和灌溉用能流动网络已分化出社团结构,“一带一路”沿线各国积极参与粮食国际贸易,在社团内核心贸易国的辐射带动下,边缘的发展中国家农业水资源和能源资源短缺的情况能得到一定改善。④非“一带一路”重要粮食贸易国在保障“一带一路”国家粮食需求的同时,为其提供了大量的虚拟水和灌溉用能资源,在贸易网络中发挥着至关重要的中介作用。本文认为“一带一路”沿线各国可以考虑通过农业贸易来优化本国农业资源结构,并加强农业合作,提高水资源和能源资源的利用率。

关键词: 粮食—能源—水关联系统, 粮食贸易, 网络模型, 社团结构, “一带一路”国家

Abstract:

Countries along the “Belt and Road” are playing an increasingly important role in the international food trade. Examining the transfer of virtual water and energy embodied in irrigation along with intercountry grain trade can provide a theoretical basis and effective reference for sustainable agricultural cooperation in this region. Employing data extracted from UN COMTRADE, FAOSTAT, and Value of Water Research Report, this study comprehensively constructed a global network model of the grain trade and estimated the virtual water and embodied irrigation energy transfers, focusing on the countries along the “Belt and Road”. The results show that larger grain exporters/importers tend to induce higher exports/imports of virtual water and embodied irrigation energy. Nevertheless, food exports might exacerbate the burden of agricultural energy use in some countries, for instance, Russia, which indicates that the reallocation of resources driven by grain trade still needs to be optimized. The stable community structures of virtual water and embodied irrigation energy networks indicate that the extensive resource exchanges embodied in grain trade play a radiating effect within the region. This study suggests that countries along the “Belt and Road” can optimize agricultural resource structure through agricultural trade, strengthen agricultural cooperation, and improve the utilization rate of water and energy resources.

Key words: food-energy-water nexus, grain trade, network model, community structure, countries along the “Belt and Road”