资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 954-963.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.05.09

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

1759—1949年天山北麓中部聚落空间演变及其影响因素

鲁思敏(), 张莉()   

  1. 陕西师范大学西北历史环境与经济社会发展研究院,西安 710119
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-20 修回日期:2020-09-15 出版日期:2021-05-25 发布日期:2021-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 张莉,女,新疆吐鲁番人,副研究员,博士,主要研究方向为历史环境变迁。E-mail: zhangli20130000@163.com
  • 作者简介:鲁思敏,女,河北邢台人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为历史环境变迁。E-mail: lusm@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学基地重大项目(17JJD770012);国家社会科学基金新疆专项(19VXJ013)

Spatial distribution and change of settlements at the middle part of the northern foot of the Tianshan Mountains and influencing factors from 1759 to 1949

LU Simin(), ZHANG Li()   

  1. Northwest Institute of Historical Environment and Social-Economic Development, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
  • Received:2020-05-20 Revised:2020-09-15 Online:2021-05-25 Published:2021-07-25

摘要:

研究干旱区聚落的空间演变过程对探究历史时期干旱区的土地利用变化和人地关系具有重要意义。本文结合历史文献、现代地方志、遥感影像等数据,运用核密度分析、标准差椭圆等方法研究1759—1949年新疆天山北麓中部木垒—奇台—吉木萨尔地区聚落的演变规律及其影响因素。结果表明:①1759—1949年聚落主要分布在坡度10°以下,且海拔为500~800 m的潜水溢出带和海拔为1100~1400 m的低山丘陵地区。②1865年前聚落演变主要表现为数量增多,分布范围扩大;1870年后聚落演变主要表现为空间集聚,密度增加。③聚落分布格局是多种因素综合作用的结果,自然因素是限制聚落分布的根本因素,人文因素是影响聚落增长速度和发展方向的重要因素。研究天山北麓中部的聚落空间演变,能够揭示干旱区人类与自然环境的互动过程。

关键词: 清中后期, 民国时期, 聚落时空变化, 绿洲, 天山北麓中部

Abstract:

It is of great significance to explore the spatial evolution process of settlements in arid areas to reveal the land use change and the relationship between human and land in the historical period. This study examined the pattern of change of settlements in the Mulei-Qitai-Jimusar region of central Xinjiang at the northern foot of the Tianshan Mountains from 1759 to 1949 and its influencing factors by means of kernel density analysis, standard deviation ellipse, and river buffer analysis. The results show that: (1) From 1759 to 1949, settlements were mainly distributed below the slope of 10°, at the overflow zone of altitude 500~800 m and the low hills of 1100~1400 m. (2) Before 1865, the number of settlements increased and their distribution expanded; and after 1870, settlement density increased. (3) A variety of factors resulted in the formation of the settlement distribution pattern, among which natural factors are the fundamental ones that limit the distribution of settlements; policy and economic factors are also important factors that affect the growth rate and development direction of settlements.

Key words: mid and late Qing Dynasty, period of the Republic of China, spatiotemporal changes of settlement, oasis, middle part of the northern foot of the Tianshan Mountains