资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (4): 823-837.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.16

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

农业文化遗产及其保护研究综述

焦雯珺1, 崔文超1,2, 闵庆文1,2(), 张永勋3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
    3. 中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所,北京100081
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-04 修回日期:2020-07-02 出版日期:2021-04-25 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 闵庆文,男,江苏徐州人,博士,研究员,研究方向为生态农业与农业文化遗产、国家公园与自然保护地体系。E-mail: minqw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:焦雯珺,女,山东青岛人,博士,副研究员,研究方向为生态系统管理、环境影响评估、区域可持续发展。E-mail: jiaowj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41801204);农业农村部国际合作司项目(12200020);农业农村部农村社会事业促进司项目(09205006)

A review of research on agricultural heritage systems and their conservation

JIAO Wenjun1, CUI Wenchao1,2, MIN Qingwen1,2(), ZHANG Yongxun3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2020-06-04 Revised:2020-07-02 Online:2021-04-25 Published:2021-06-25

摘要:

联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)在2002年启动“全球重要农业文化遗产(GIAHS)”保护项目。自此,在持续不断的研究工作及其成果的支撑下,农业文化遗产保护工作不断取得进步。截至2020年4月,共有全球59个传统农业系统被FAO认定为GIAHS,分布在22个国家。已有研究成果的全面总结不仅对开展农业文化遗产及其保护研究具有借鉴作用,而且对指导如何在未来开展农业文化遗产保护工作也具有重要意义。为此,本文系统梳理了2002年—2020年4月农业文化遗产及其保护的研究成果,从可持续机制、功能与价值、威胁与挑战、动态保护途径和保护机制5个方面进行了归纳总结。研究发现:①农业文化遗产及其保护研究符合“驱动力-压力-状态-影响-响应”的逻辑框架。在现代化、城镇化等驱动力的影响下,农业文化遗产正面临着前所未有的威胁与挑战。劳动力流失、土地抛荒、传统知识和文化无人继承等压力,导致农业文化遗产的要素、结构与功能发生变化,并最终影响到农业文化遗产的可持续性及价值表达。面对这些威胁与挑战,遗产地必须探索动态保护途径,如生态农产品开发、可持续旅游开发、产业融合发展等,并建立多方参与、生态补偿、文化保护、监测评估等保护机制。②在未来很长一段时间,社会与生态可持续机制、多功能性与多重价值、动态保护与适应性管理等,仍将是农业文化遗产及其保护研究的核心内容。此外,单一性问题的深入研究、复合性问题的综合研究、研究对象和研究区域的拓展等,也将成为未来农业文化遗产及其保护研究的发展方向。

关键词: 全球重要农业文化遗产(GIAHS), 国家重要农业文化遗产(NIAHS), 可持续机制, 多重价值, 动态保护途径

Abstract:

Since the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) launched the initiative on the conservation of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) in 2002, the conservation of agricultural heritage systems has made continuous progress, under the support of sustained scientific research and its findings. As of April 2020, 59 traditional agricultural systems in 22 countries around the world have been designated as GIAHS by FAO. Nowadays, agricultural heritage systems have entered a new stage of development. A review of existing research findings is of great significance for scholars to carry out research on agricultural heritage systems and also for the conservation of agricultural heritage systems in the future. For this reason, this article systematically reviewed the research findings of agricultural heritage systems and their conservation from 2002 to April of 2020, and made summaries from five aspects of sustainability mechanisms, functions and values, threats and challenges, dynamic conservation approaches, and conservation mechanisms. The results show that agricultural heritage systems and their conservation research conformed to the logic framework of “driving force-pressure-state-impact-response”. Under the influence of driving factors such as modernization and urbanization, agricultural heritage systems are facing unprecedented threats and challenges. The loss of labor force, the abandonment of farmland, and the lost traditional knowledge and culture will eventually lead to the changes in the structures and functions of agricultural heritage systems, which will in turn affect the sustainability and values of agricultural heritage systems. In the face of these threats and challenges, the heritage sites must explore dynamic conservation approaches, such as the development of eco-agricultural products, sustainable tourism, industrial integration, and so on, and establish conservation mechanisms of multi-stakeholder participation, ecological compensation, cultural protection, and monitoring and evaluation. For a long time in the future, social and ecological sustainability mechanisms, multi-functions and multi-values, dynamic conservation, and adaptive management will still be the core research contents of agricultural heritage systems and their conservation. In addition, the in-depth study of individual issues, the comprehensive study of complex issues, and the expansion of the research objects and areas will also become the directions of the future research on agricultural heritage systems and their conservation.

Key words: Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (NIAHS), sustainability mechanism, multiple values, dynamic conservation approach