资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (4): 764-775.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.11

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

土地经营对中国城市空间扩张的驱动机制——基于273个地级市的实证分析

刘奎1, 王健1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学土地科学与技术学院,北京100193
    2. 中国土地政策与法律研究中心,北京100193
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-18 修回日期:2020-09-18 出版日期:2021-04-25 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 王健,男,海南屯昌人,副教授,博士生导师,研究方向为土地经济与土地制度。E-mail: wangjian@cau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘奎,男,河南光山人,硕士研究生,研究方向为土地经济与土地政策。E-mail: kuil29@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(18CJL041)

Driving mechanism of land conduct on urban spatial expansion in China: Empirical analysis based on 273 prefecture-level cities

LIU Kui1, WANG Jian1,2()   

  1. 1. College of Land Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    2. Center for Land Policy and Law, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2020-06-18 Revised:2020-09-18 Online:2021-04-25 Published:2021-06-25

摘要:

分税制改革后,地方政府采取“以地生财、以财养地”的城市土地经营模式,凭借土地出让获取土地收益,并用于城市基础设施等城市建设投资,以推动城市经济发展,但土地经营对城市规模的空间扩张机制仍有待理清。基于地方政府土地收益和城市建设投资两个维度,本文构建了中国地方政府土地经营驱动的城市空间扩张理论逻辑,选择2003—2017年中国273个地级及以上城市面板数据,利用固定效应模型进行实证分析。研究结果表明:①2003—2017年中国城市空间规模、地方政府土地收益和城市建设投资均处于快速扩张阶段,然而以地谋发展的城市土地经营模式逐渐呈现出不可持续的端倪;②从全国尺度来看,土地经营模式下地方政府土地收益和城市建设投资均显著推动城市空间规模扩张。城市非农人口、城市人均GDP、城市三产产值占比以及城市人均道路面积对城市空间扩张均存在显著的促进作用;③从区域尺度来看,在东部、中部和西部地区,地方政府土地收益均显著推动城市空间扩张,但地方政府城市建设投资影响存在空间异质性,仅对西部地区城市空间扩张存在显著推动作用。此外,产业结构升级仅对东部地区存在显著的正向作用。新型城镇化背景下,地方政府应基于城乡互动关系,积极推进城市发展格局优化下的城市空间均衡扩张。

关键词: 城市规模, 空间扩张, 土地经营, 土地收益, 城市建设投资, 固定效应模型, 驱动机制, 中国

Abstract:

After the tax-sharing reform in China, local governments adopted the urban land conduct model of “making money from land and developing land with the money”, and relied on land transfer to obtain fund for urban infrastructure investment and to promote urban economic development. However, the mechanism of influence of land conduct on urban spatial expansion remains to be clarified. Based on the two dimensions of land revenue and urban construction investment of local governments, this study explored the mechanism of urban spatial expansion driven by local government land conduct. The panel data of 273 prefecture-level and above cities in China from 2003 to 2017 and the fixed effects models were used for an empirical analysis. The results show that: (1) China’s urban spatial scale, local government land revenue, and urban construction investment were all in a stage of rapid expansion from 2003 to 2017, but the urban land conduct model, based on the pursuit of land development, is gradually showing unsustainable signs. (2) From the national perspective, local government land revenue and urban construction investment have significantly promoted urban spatial expansion in China under the land conduct model. Urban spatial expansion was also remarkably stimulated by urban per capita GDP, urban non-agricultural population, the proportion of tertiary output value, and urban per capita road area. (3) From the regional perspective, local government land revenue has significantly promoted the urban spatial expansion in the eastern, central, and western regions. However, there is a spatial heterogeneity in local government urban construction investment, which only plays a tremendous role in promoting urban spatial expansion in the western region. In addition, compared with the whole country, the proportion of the tertiary output value has a notable positive effect only in the eastern region. Under the background of new urbanization, local governments should push forward more vigorously the balanced expansion of urban space under the partial equilibrium of urban development based on the interaction between urban and rural areas.

Key words: urban scale, spatial expansion, land conduct, land revenue, urban construction investment, fixed effects model, driving mechanism, China