资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (4): 745-755.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.09

• 中国碳达峰研究专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于生命周期评估的海、陆风电系统排放对比

向宁1,2, 王礼茂1,2(), 屈秋实1,2, 熊琛然1,2, 王博1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-22 修回日期:2021-01-25 出版日期:2021-04-25 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 王礼茂,男,安徽巢湖人,研究员,主要从事能源与地缘政治、能源经济与气候变化政策等方面的研究。E-mail: lmwang@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:向宁,男,四川什邡人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为能源经济与地缘政治。E-mail: xiangn.18b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    科技部重点研发计划项目(2016YFA0602800);国家自然科学基金项目(41971163);国家自然科学基金项目(71991481);国家自然科学基金项目(71991484)

Comparison of emissions from offshore and onshore wind power systems based on life cycle assessment

XIANG Ning1,2, WANG Limao1,2(), QU Qiushi1,2, XIONG Chenran1,2, WANG Bo1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-06-22 Revised:2021-01-25 Online:2021-04-25 Published:2021-06-25

摘要:

为了应对气候变化、资源短缺与环境污染问题,各国都在积极开发清洁能源,风能作为可再生的清洁能源,得到了世界各国的高度重视。在实现2030年碳排放达峰的目标约束下,近年来,中国风电规模也处于快速增长的阶段。风力发电过程虽然不会排放温室气体和污染物,但从产业的生命周期角度分析,在设备制造、运输、安装、运行、废弃等环节也会带来一定量的温室气体和污染物的排放,因此风力发电并不是零排放的能源。本文利用全生命周期评价方法对比研究了100 MW海上和陆上风电系统的全生命周期的排放情况,重点分析了不同功率风机的风电场的全生命周期温室气体排放情况,并分析了一般污染物对于环境的影响。研究结果表明:①海上风电场全生命周期温室气体排放量平均为1.49 g CO2/kWh,陆上风电场平均排放量3.62 g CO2/kWh,均远远小于传统火力发电,比较而言,在减少温室气体排放方面,海上风电系统更具优势;②在全生命周期污染物排放方面,海上风电场全生命周期污染物的排放量要小于陆上风电场,且具有更短的能源回报时间,经济效益更高,对环境更友好;③在全生命周期中,风机的生产过程所产生的温室气体排放占到总温室气体排放的40%以上,同时风机生产所排放的污染物对于环境的负面影响最大,约占整个生命周期影响的50%以上;④配备更大功率的风机将有助于减少温室气体和污染物的排放。研究结果可为减少环境污染、实现碳排放达峰目标提供参考依据。

关键词: 风能, 陆上风电场, 海上风电场, 生命周期评估, 温室气体排放, 环境影响

Abstract:

In order to cope with climate change, resource shortage, and environmental pollution, all countries are actively developing clean energy. Wind energy is one of the renewable clean energy sources, which has been vigorously developed by many countries in the world. In recent years, in order to meet the requirement of carbon emission peak in 2030, wind power in China is also rapidly developing. Although the process of wind power generation will not emit greenhouse gases and pollutants, from the perspective of the life cycle of the industry, it still produces a certain amount of greenhouse gases and pollutants in equipment manufacturing, transportation, installation, operation, waste disposal, and other links, so wind power is not zero emission energy. In this study, the life cycle assessment method was used to compare the life cycle emissions of 100 MW offshore and onshore wind power systems. The key point is to analyze the greenhouse gas emissions of wind farms equipped with different power wind turbines in the whole life cycle and the impact of emissions on the environment. The results show that: the average life cycle carbon emission of offshore wind farms is 1.49 g CO2/kWh, and that of onshore wind farms is 3.62 g CO2/kWh. The average life cycle carbon emission of both wind farms are far less than that of traditional thermal power generation. In terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the offshore wind power system has more advantages; The emission of offshore wind farms in the whole life cycle is less than that of onshore wind farms, and the offshore system has shorter energy return time and is more environmentally friendly; In the whole life cycle, the greenhouse gas emissions produced by the production of wind turbines account for more than 40% of the total greenhouse gases emissions. At the same time, the pollutants from the production of wind turbines have the greatest negative impact on the environment, accounting for more than 50% of the entire life cycle impact; By comparing the life cycle emissions of offshore and onshore wind power systems with different power wind turbines, more powerful wind turbines will help reduce greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions. This study compares the life cycle emissions of offshore and onshore wind farm construction, and provides a reference for China to reduce environmental pollution and achieve the goal of carbon emissions to peak.

Key words: wind energy, onshore wind power, offshore wind power, life cycle assessment, greenhouse gas emissions, environmental impact