资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (4): 669-681.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.03

• 中国碳达峰研究专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

全球关键金属-低碳能源关联研究综述及其启示

汪鹏1, 王翘楚1, 韩茹茹2, 汤林彬1,5, 刘昱1, 蔡闻佳3,4, 陈伟强1,5()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院城市环境研究所,中科院城市环境与健康重点实验室,厦门361021
    2. 北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院,北京100083
    3. 清华大学地球系统科学系,北京100084
    4. 清华-力拓资源能源与可持续发展研究中心,北京100084
    5. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-18 修回日期:2021-03-10 出版日期:2021-04-25 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈伟强,男,福建漳州人,研究员,主要从事资源循环、城市代谢及生态环境大数据研究。E-mail: wqchen@iue.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:汪鹏,男,江西鹰潭人,助理研究员,主要从事关键金属与能源环境关联系统研究。E-mail: pwang@iue.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年项目(71904182);福建省科技计划对外合作项目(2020I0039);清华力拓资源能源与可持续发展研究中心基金项目

Nexus between low-carbon energy and critical metals: Literature review and implications

WANG Peng1, WANG Qiaochu1, HAN Ruru2, TANG Linbin1,5, LIU Yu1, CAI Wenjia3,4, CHEN Weiqiang1,5()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, CAS, Xiamen 361021, China
    2. School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
    3. Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    4. Tsinghua-Rio Tinto Joint Research Center for Resources, Energy and Sustainable Development, Beijing 100084, China
    5. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-01-18 Revised:2021-03-10 Online:2021-04-25 Published:2021-06-25

摘要:

在“碳中和”背景下,学术界日益清晰地认识到“关键金属”与低碳能源技术之间存在着紧密的相互依赖关系。为提升国际社会对“关键金属-低碳能源”关联研究的认识,本文整理了该领域2000—2020年发表的200多篇文献资料,综述了该领域研究的发展历程与最新进展,阐述了主要的科学发现:①能源低碳转型将驱动多种关键金属的开采量和贸易量持续快速增长,加剧关键金属供应国的生态环境污染,加深世界各国对关键金属资源的依赖和争夺;②部分关键金属存在储量不足、贸易供应链脆弱、地理分布不均、环境污染严重等风险,并将对全球低碳转型产生约束,进而重塑全球能源地缘政治格局;③中国作为多种关键金属的生产、消费和贸易大国,为推动全球能源低碳转型付出了巨大的资源和环境代价,且自身同样面临关键金属供应短缺的风险。建议在“碳达峰”与“碳中和”目标的背景下,中国应深化金属-能源关联研究,开展金属-能源协同管理,研判关键金属对中国发展低碳技术的支撑和限制作用,警惕能源系统低碳转型带来的新型地缘政治风险。

关键词: 低碳能源, 关键矿产, 金属-能源关联, 环境影响, 资源安全供应

Abstract:

There is a close interdependence between critical metals and low-carbon energy technologies. To improve the understanding of this relationship, this study made a comprehensive literature review (including about 200 papers published since 2000) to explore the objects, methods, and progress related to the research of the metal-energy nexus. The main findings are summarized as follows: (1) The low-carbon energy transition has driven the rapid growth of the production and trade of critical metals, and led to serious environmental pollution and the intensified competitions globally; (2) The global low-carbon energy transition could be constrained by the potential supply risks of critical metals caused by insufficient reserves, fragile trade networks, unequal geographical distribution, and high environmental pollution; (3) China, as a major producer and consumer of various critical metals, has borne the huge resource and environmental costs to support the global low-carbon energy transition, and its supply risks of critical metals are also high to support domestic needs. Under the target of “carbon peak” and “carbon neutrality”, we highlight that higher attentions are needed from researchers and policymakers in China on the research of the metals-energy nexus, coordinated management of critical metals and low-carbon energy, assessment of the potential critical metals constraint on low-carbon energy transition, and the emerging geopolitical risks concerning critical metals.

Key words: low-carbon energy, critical minerals, metal-energy nexus, environmental impact, supply security of resources