资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 612-625.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.17

• 环境效应与调控 • 上一篇    下一篇

资源产品贸易的环境影响及隐含环境流分析——以铜资源为例

邸敬涵1,2(), 温宗国2()   

  1. 1.中国人民大学环境学院,北京100872
    2.清华大学环境学院,北京100084
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-20 修回日期:2021-03-21 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 温宗国
  • 作者简介:邸敬涵,女,吉林长春人,博士后,主要从事资源环境管理政策研究。E-mail: jinghan.di@ruc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1900301);国家杰出青年科学基金项目(71825006)

Environmental impacts and embodied environmental flows of the international trade of resource products: A case study of copper

DI Jinghan1,2(), WEN Zongguo2()   

  1. 1. School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
    2. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2021-02-20 Revised:2021-03-21 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25
  • Contact: WEN Zongguo

摘要:

资源产品大规模的国际贸易在对全球资源进行再分配的同时,也产生了显著的跨境环境影响转移。传统仅从国家或产业层面评估国际贸易中单一环境要素的隐含流已远无法满足国际谈判与博弈中的精细化决策要求。本文以铜资源为例,应用生命周期评价方法构建了产品级、多环境要素的国际贸易环境影响及隐含流核算体系,选取了2018年6种铜资源产品的国际贸易数据,核算了铜资源产品在国际贸易中对各国带来的环境影响变化及在各国之间形成的多环境要素隐含流。分析发现:①不同资源产品在生产加工过程的环境影响类别、国际贸易带来的环境影响变化和所形成的隐含流规律等方面均具有较大差异。②铜资源产品的国际贸易带来了全球环境影响的显著增加,其中,约97%来源于铜矿、粗铜、精炼铜等原材料产品的贸易,主要流向原料国,其余3%的贸易环境影响增加来源于铜废料的国际贸易,主要由中国等发展中国家承担;③总体上,在铜资源的国际贸易中主要形成了“发达国家→中、印等发展中国家→其他发展中国家”的全球环境影响转移链条。根据研究所得结论,建议在资源产品国际贸易谈判博弈和环境政策制定中,应综合考虑多环境要素,并结合各国经济发展水平对不同资源产品予以精细的差别化管理。

关键词: 贸易环境影响, 生命周期评价, 隐含环境流, 铜资源产品, 精细化管理

Abstract:

Under the background of globalization, while the large scale international trade reallocates resources among countries, it also transfers significant environmental impacts. With the increasing global environmental requirements in trade negotiation and competition, the original evaluation method for embodied environmental flows based on single environmental element from the perspective of countries or industries no longer can meet the requirements of the current trend for delicacy management. Therefore, this research used the Life Cycle Assessment method and established an updated evaluation system for the environmental impacts of trade and embodied environmental flows at the product level, through the whole life cycle and considering multiple environmental elements. This research took copper resource as an example. To evaluate the change of environmental impacts and embodied environmental flows in the international trade of copper products, we chose the 2018 trade data and environmental impact data for 6 categories of copper resource products. The results indicate that large differences exist between the specific environmental impacts of producing and manufacturing various resource products, environmental impact changes in different countries, and the regulation of embodied environmental flows in the trade. The international trade of copper products brought significant increase of global environmental impacts. About 97% of the increase came from the trade of raw material products such as copper mine, blister copper, and refined copper, which was mostly burdened by countries with copper resource endowment. The rest 3% of the global environmental impact increase was from copper scrap trade, whose environmental burden was borne by developing countries such as China. Overall, it formed a chain of global environmental impact transfer from “developed countries→developing countries such as China and India→other developing countries”. Based on these results, we suggested that during the international trade negotiation and environmental policy-making processes, countries should sufficiently consider multiple environmental elements as well as the economic development levels and apply discrepant management for different types of resource products.

Key words: environmental impacts of trade, Life Cycle Assessment, embodied environmental flows, copper resource products, delicacy management