资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 556-566.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.12

• 路径、格局与过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

家用空调制冷剂物质流动态演化特征——以中国澳门特别行政区为例

汪中才1(), 宋庆彬1(), 蔡铠涵1, 李金惠2   

  1. 1.澳门科技大学澳门环境研究院,中国澳门特区 999078
    2.清华大学环境学院,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-18 修回日期:2021-01-07 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 宋庆彬
  • 作者简介:汪中才,男,湖北黄石人,硕士生,主要研究方向为城市电子废弃物环境影响评价。E-mail: mayqueen2016@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    澳门特别行政区科学技术发展基金项目(0011/2018/A);广东省基础与应用基础研究基金项目(2019A1515011757)

Dynamic evolution characteristics of refrigerant mass flow in household air conditioners: A case study of Macao S.A.R., China

WANG Zhongcai1(), SONG Qingbin1(), CAI Kaihan1, LI Jinhui2   

  1. 1. Macao Environmental Research Institute, Macao University of Science and Technology, Macao 999078, China
    2. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2020-09-18 Revised:2021-01-07 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25
  • Contact: SONG Qingbin

摘要:

由于制冷剂较高的臭氧层消耗潜势和气候变化影响,政府和公众对于制冷剂的重视程度正不断加深。《蒙特利尔议定书》虽从源头上限制了臭氧消耗类物质(ODS)的生产和使用,却忽略了ODS的产品生命周期过程中潜在的释放风险。基于物质流分析方法,本文构建了中国澳门特别行政区(以下简称澳门特区)家用空调制冷剂的动态分析框架,并从生命周期角度量化了1998—2019年澳门特区家用空调制冷剂的流量和存量特征,揭示了不同制冷剂类型的潜在环境释放随时间的变化趋势。结果表明:①1998—2019年间,澳门特区家用空调制冷剂进口量、存量和释放量均有显著增加,其中最主要制冷剂类型为R22(CHClF2),且R22释放也导致了最大的臭氧消耗潜势(ODP)影响和全球变暖潜势(GWP)影响。②1998—2019年间,澳门特区家用空调制冷剂累计进口量为1096.71 t,制冷剂的存量也由零增加至512.67 t且没有达峰的迹象。近年来,澳门特区家用空调废弃阶段的制冷剂释放量贡献占比高达80%,空调使用阶段制冷剂贡献率为20%左右。尽管澳门特区家用空调制冷剂的ODP影响和GWP影响已分别于2014年和2013年达到峰值,但存量仍然具有较大规模。③未来,澳门特区政府应继续巩固和完善废弃空调回收和处置措施,进一步增加现有处理企业处置能力、强化废弃制冷剂的回收和循环处置技术水平。本文的结果可为澳门特区制冷剂的有效管理提供参考,也可为其他城市核算家用空调生命周期制冷剂提供方法支撑。

关键词: 家用空调, 制冷剂, 物质流分析, 生命周期, 中国澳门特别行政区

Abstract:

For decades, governments and the public have paid increasing attention to household air conditioning refrigerants (HARs) due to their huge environmental impacts. The Montreal Protocol restricts the use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) from the source but ignores the potential release risks during the life cycle of ODS products. Based on the material flow analysis (MFA) method, this study established a dynamic analysis framework for HARs in Macao S.A.R., China, and retrospectively quantified the characteristics of HARs in Macao S.A.R., China from a life cycle perspective during 1998-2019, revealing the trends of potential environmental releases of different refrigerant types over time. The results show that from 1998 to 2019, there was a significant increase in the import, stock, and release of HARs in Macao S.A.R., China, with the most dominant refrigerant type being R22 (CHClF2), and the release of R22 also brings about a higher ozone depletion potential (ODP) effect and global warming potential (GWP) effect. From 1998 to 2019, the cumulative import of HARs was 1096.71 t, and the stock of HARs also increased from zero to 512.67 t with no sign of peaking in Macao S.A.R, China. In recent years, the contribution of HAR release from end-of-life stage accounted for up to 80% of the total HAR release and the contribution of HARs from the use stage is about 20%. Although the ODP effect and GWP effect of HARs have peaked in 2013 and 2014, respectively, the stock is still relatively large. The results of this study point out that Macao S.A.R, China. should continue to consolidate the recovery measures and improve the related disposal measures of waste air conditioners in the future. In addition, further increase of the disposal capacity of existing treatment enterprises and strengthening of the technical level of recovery and recycling of waste refrigerants are indeed. The results of this study can be a valuable reference for the proper management of HARs in Macao S.A.R, China. and provide a methodological support for other cities to account for life-cycle refrigerants in household air conditioners.

Key words: household air conditioner, refrigerants, material flow analysis, life cycle analysis, Macao S.A.R., China