资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 546-555.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.11

• 路径、格局与过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国钢结构建筑的物质流分析

张元林(), 张上, 李金惠, 曾现来()   

  1. 清华大学环境学院,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-10 修回日期:2021-03-01 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 曾现来
  • 作者简介:张元林,男,山东临沂人,硕士,从事钢结构建筑研究。E-mail: yu_anlin_cool@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    清华大学亚洲研究中心B类项目(2018-B1);国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFC1908501)

Measuring material flow performance of China’s steel structure building

ZHANG Yuanlin(), ZHANG Shang, LI Jinhui, ZENG Xianlai()   

  1. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2020-07-10 Revised:2021-03-01 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25
  • Contact: ZENG Xianlai

摘要:

钢结构建筑因自重较轻、施工方便成为主流的建筑类型,但过去对该产业评估研究较少,缺乏对其资源生产率及环境影响的充分认识。本文选择中国西部、东北和中部地区的15个钢结构建筑设施作为研究对象,利用物质流分析钢结构建筑物质流动过程中输入、输出物质种类和重量,结合钢结构建筑所产生的经济价值,核算其资源生产率,同时对钢结构建筑中钢铁的物质流全过程进行生命周期评价。结果表明:①生产过程中95%的钢铁得到利用,5%成为废钢铁,钢结构建筑中单位建筑面积资源消耗量从高到低排序为矿物、水、氧气、化石能源、生物质,其中东北地区钢结构建筑的矿物质消耗量最大,达到107 kg/m2;②根据钢结构建筑直接输入物质所占比例,西部地区、东北地区、中部地区钢结构建筑资源生产率分别约为692元/t、512元/t、610元/t;③钢结构生命周期对环境影响最大的阶段为钢铁生产阶段;如果考虑循环利用,其环境影响最大出现在钢结构加工阶段,且钢铁循环利用可显著降低钢结构产业的环境影响。依据以上研究结果,东北地区钢结构建筑资源生产效率最低,应提高其资源生产效率,大幅度促进循环利用,实现可持续发展。

关键词: 钢铁, 物质流分析, 生命周期评价, 废物管理, 资源管理, 钢结构

Abstract:

With the development of human society and economy, the buildings, which are closely related to human life, have developed into a diversified direction. To date, it has undergone tremendous change and includes concrete buildings, reinforced concrete buildings, and steel structure buildings. The steel buildings are rapidly prominent due to their high strength and convenient installation. However, there is still a lack of a systematic evaluation of the sustainability of steel structure buildings in terms of environmental and economic performance. Material flow analysis is conducted to analyze the types and quality of materials input and output during the steel structure buildings. Combined with the economic value generated by steel structure buildings, the efficiency of steel structure resources is revealed. Life cycle assessment is employed to measure the environmental impact of the whole life cycle process from cradle to grave. The main findings are given here: (1) Approximately 95% steel can be effectively used in the manufacturing process and 5% becomes new scrap; (2) Resource consumption per area of steel building ranks mineral, water, oxygen, fossil energy, and biomass from high to low. The largest mineral consumption is 10.7 t per 100 m2, lying in northeast China; (3) The resource productivity of steel structure buildings in northwest China, northeast China, and central China is 692 yuan/t, 512 yuan/t, and 610 yuan/t, respectively; (4) The environmental impact of the steel structure includes four types, such as environmental acidification, eutrophication, greenhouse effect, and photochemical oxidant production capacity. If the key steel material in the steel structure buildings is not recycled, the most important stage of the life cycle environmental impact of the steel structure occurs in the steel production stage. Otherwise, it occurs during the steel structure processing stage. Through the comparative analysis of the recycling and non-recycling of the critical steel materials in the steel structure, the impact of the steel structure's life cycle on the environment would be greatly reduced when the steel in the steel structure is adequately recycled.

Key words: steel, material flow analysis, life cycle assessment, waste management, resource management, steel structure