资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 535-545.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.10

• 路径、格局与过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国铅资源流动及其循环效率

李新(), 康欣宇, 林靖, 陈璐, 王敏晰()   

  1. 成都理工大学管理科学学院,成都 610059
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-30 修回日期:2021-01-09 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 王敏晰
  • 作者简介:李新,男,沈阳人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为循环经济。E-mail: lixin2012@cdut.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国地质调查项目(DD20190676)

China’s lead resource flow and its recycling efficiency

LI Xin(), KANG Xinyu, LIN Jing, CHEN Lu, WANG Minxi()   

  1. Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
  • Received:2020-09-30 Revised:2021-01-09 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25
  • Contact: WANG Minxi

摘要:

中国是全球最大的精铅生产国和消费国,铅资源对外依存度一直保持在20%左右,而铅在全生命周期的损失带来的环境影响严重地危害了人类生命健康。本文定量分析了中国铅元素的流量、社会存量、理论报废量、回收量和循环效率等指标,得到中国铅资源在其全生命周期各个阶段的投入产出量、损失量和循环效率等情况,从而为中国铅资源高效循环利用和减少环境影响提供政策建议。结果表明:①1949—2017年中国铅的社会存量已达2553.2万t,其中82%的社会存量集中在2000—2017年期间;②1949—2017年,铅制品理论报废量已达3822万t,而实际再生铅的产量仅为1977万t,理论循环效率为52%,远低于欧美的98%;③2017年中国铅在生产、制造、消费和回收等4个阶段损失量的占比分别为6%、7%、14%和73%,表明政府在铅生产、制造和消费领域的一系列强制性管理政策效果明显,铅废物回收是铅损失控制的关键点;④未来中国铅的消费仍保持较高水平,铅制品的报废量将持续增加。因此,全面控制铅在各阶段的损失仍需政府进一步强化生产、制造和消费阶段的管理政策执行力度,特别是有针对性地出台系列强制性废料管理和报废回收的政策,大幅提高铅在全生命周期的利用效率和循环效率,有效解决中国铅资源短缺和环境危害严重等问题。

关键词: 铅资源, 生命周期, 物质流分析, 资源再生, 环境影响, 循环效率

Abstract:

China is the largest producer and consumer of refined lead in the world. External dependency on lead resources has been maintained at around 20%. The environmental impact caused by the loss of lead throughout its life cycle has seriously endangered people’s lives and health. This study analyzed China’s lead material flow, stock of products, theoretical scrap, recycling, and recycling efficiency, among other indicators, and estimated the input and output, loss, and recycling efficiency of China’s lead resources at each stage of the life cycle as a basis to provide policy recommendations for the efficient recycling of lead resources in China and reduce the environmental impacts. The results show that: (1) The stock of products of lead in China from 1949 to 2017 reached 25.532 million tons, of which 82% was concentrated in 2000 to 2017; (2) From 1949 to 2017, the theoretical scrap of lead products reached 38.22 million tons, but the actual output of recycled lead was only 19.77 million tons, and the theoretical recycle efficiency was 52%, which was far lower than 98% in Europe and the United States; (3) In 2017, China’s lead loss distribution was 6%, 7%, 14%, and 73% in the stages of production, manufacturing, consumption, and recycling, indicating that the government’s policies in the management of lead production, manufacturing, and consumption were effective, and lead waste recycling was the key to lead loss control; (4) China’s lead consumption will remain relatively high in the future. The scrap of lead will continue to increase. Therefore, controlling the loss of lead at all stages still requires the government to strengthen the implementation of policies in the management of production, manufacturing, and consumption stages. Especially, a series of waste management and scrap recycling management and control policies to increase lead utilization efficiency and recycling efficiency is needed for solving the problems of lead resource shortage and serious environmental damage in China.

Key words: lead resources, life cycle, material flow analysis, scrap recycling, lead pollution, recycling efficiency