资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 456-464.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.03

• 理论、方法与技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

煤基固废循环利用技术与产品链构建

李会泉1,2,3(), 胡应燕1,2,4, 李少鹏1,2, 李强1,2, 朱干宇1,2, 张建波1,2, 王兴瑞1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院过程工程研究所绿色过程与工程中科院重点实验室,北京 100190
    2.湿法冶金清洁生产技术国家工程实验室,北京 100190
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    4.中国恩菲工程技术有限公司,北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-09 修回日期:2021-02-25 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 作者简介:李会泉,男,辽宁盘锦人,研究员,从事清洁生产与循环利用方面研究。E-mail: hqli@ipe.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金联合基金重点项目(U1810205);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA21040600)

Recycling and product chain of coal-based solid waste

LI Huiquan1,2,3(), HU Yingyan1,2,4, LI Shaopeng1,2, LI Qiang1,2, ZHU Ganyu1,2, ZHANG Jianbo1,2, WANG Xingrui1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, Beijing 100190, China
    2. National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. China Enfi Engineering Corporation, Beijing 100038, China
  • Received:2020-10-09 Revised:2021-02-25 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25

摘要:

煤基固废的大规模循环利用,对于中国西北大型能源基地的可持续发展和生态环境保护具有重要现实意义。本文以中国典型能源基地为研究对象,采用区域内固废、产业协同配置的思路,通过煤基固废制备化学品、环保材料、建材等关键技术开发,构建电石渣、气化渣、废催化剂等典型煤基固废循环利用关键产品链。结果表明:①电石渣、气化渣、废催化剂等煤基固废可通过杂质快速分离、矿相调控和载体重构等技术的耦合集成,制备性能良好的脱硫剂、水玻璃、催化剂等系列产品,直接用于区域内煤-电-化企业生产过程;②煤基固废中90%以上的钙、硅、铝得到有效利用,废催化剂中钒、钨、钛金属循环利用率超过90%,气化渣中残碳被有效分离利用。以上构建的循环产品链将煤炭、水资源利用效益分别提升36%和27%,3类典型固废综合利用率由28%提升至85%左右,为煤炭固废的大规模利用提供了新路径,从而可实现煤炭及其伴生/二次资源区域内的高效循环。

关键词: 煤基固废, 电石渣, 气化渣, 废催化剂, 产品链, 西北地区

Abstract:

: Large-scale recycling of coal-based solid waste has important practical significance for the sustainable development and ecological environment protection of the large-scale energy bases in northwestern China. In this study, the typical energy bases in northwestern China were taken as a research object. The principle of collaborative location of solid waste and industry in the region was applied in the analysis. Key technologies such as the use of coal-based solid waste to produce chemicals, environmental protection materials, and building materials were proposed. The key product chains of typical coal-based solid waste recycling such as calcium carbide slag, gasification slag, and spent catalysts were established. The results show that coal-based solid wastes such as calcium carbide slag, gasification slag, and spent catalyst can be used to prepare desulfurizers, water glass, catalysts, and other products with good performance through separation of impurities, phase control, and catalyst carrier refactoring. The products can be directly used in the production process of coal-electricity-chemical enterprises in the region. In the coal-based solid waste 90% of calcium, aluminum, and silicon can be effectively used, and the recycle rate of vanadium, wolfram, and titanium can reach over 90%. Residual carbon can be separated. The utilization efficiency of coal and water resources of the recycling product chain can be increased to 36% and 27%, respectively, which can reduce the emissions of three types of typical solid waste by more than 98%. The process can provide a new way for large-scale utilization of solid waste, and can realize the high efficiency utilization of coal and secondary resources in coal energy bases.

Key words: coal-based solid waste, calcium carbide slag, gasification slag, spent catalyst, product chain, northwestern China