资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 446-455.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.02

• 理论、方法与技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

生命周期评价方法研究进展

翟一杰1(), 张天祚1, 申晓旭1, 马逍天2, 洪静兰1()   

  1. 1.山东大学环境科学与工程学院,青岛 266237
    2.山东大学威海蓝绿发展研究院,威海 264209
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-13 修回日期:2021-03-05 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 洪静兰
  • 作者简介:翟一杰,女,山东济南人,博士研究生,研究方向为生命周期评价。E-mail: zhaiyijie@mail.sdu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71671105);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFF0206702)

Development of life cycle assessment method

ZHAI Yijie1(), ZHANG Tianzuo1, SHEN Xiaoxu1, MA Xiaotian2, HONG Jinglan1()   

  1. 1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China
    2. Institute of Blue and Green Development, Shandong University, Weihai 264209, China
  • Received:2020-11-13 Revised:2021-03-05 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25
  • Contact: HONG Jinglan

摘要:

生命周期评价方法因可针对产业活动的物质流、能量流及其环境效应进行系统地量化与优化,已成为国际公认的进行环境管理、可持续发展评估和生态设计的必备工具。受制于尚未完善的生命周期清单和生命周期影响评价模型,当前中国生命周期评价研究存在应用面狭窄、溯源困难、结论冲突、源头减量化难控制等诸多问题。针对上述问题,本文指出基于过程的、快速的生命周期清单构建方法可实现“微观-中观-宏观-动态”多层次研究;统一完整的、动态的、适用于中国国情、较高数据质量、可共享的本土化生命周期清单数据库构建仍需进一步推进;生命周期影响评价模型的选用和修正对科学、精准的生命周期评价研究是十分必要的;具有时空属性的生命周期影响评价模型亟需进一步提升。最后,基于中国生命周期评价方法研究现状的梳理和分析结果,本文对未来生命周期评价的研究方向进行了展望。

关键词: 生命周期评价, 生命周期清单, 生命周期影响评价, 动态化, 区域化

Abstract:

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to systematically quantify and optimize industrial activities’ material flow, energy flow, and environmental impacts. This method has become an internationally recognized tool for environmental management, sustainable development assessment, and ecological design. However, due to imperfect life cycle inventory databases and life cycle impact assessment models, current Chinese LCA researches faces several issues, such as narrow applications, low traceability, conflicting conclusions, and difficulty in controlling source reduction. To solve these problems, this study pointed out that the process-based and rapid life cycle inventory construction method could contribute to conducting LCA research at the micro, meso, and macro levels. Further promotion of the construction of a unified, complete, dynamic, regional, and sharable life cycle inventory database with high data quality is necessary. The selection and revision of the life cycle impact assessment model is imperative to conduct highly scientific and accurate LCA research. Furthermore, the life cycle impact assessment model with spatial and temporal attributes should be improved. On the basis of the review and analysis of the current situation of the research on LCA method in China, this study projected the future directions of Chinese LCA research.

Key words: life cycle assessment, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, dynamic, regional