资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 435-445.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.01

• 理论、方法与技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

物质循环科学的研究对象、理论与方法

袁增伟(), 程明今   

  1. 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室,南京大学环境学院,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-20 修回日期:2021-03-11 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 作者简介:袁增伟,男,河南平顶山人,教授,主要从事物质循环及其环境效应研究。E-mail: yuanzw@nju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年科学基金项目(41925004)

Object, theories and methods of material cycling science

YUAN Zengwei(), CHENG Mingjin   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2020-11-20 Revised:2021-03-11 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25

摘要:

人类活动的一项基本功能是从自然界不断开采资源,并将其加工成各种产品来满足生产和生活需要,同时向环境中排放污染物。因此,从宏观化学物质循环的角度来看,人类活动就是将地球表层物质不断进行时空转运和形态重构的过程。日益增强的人类活动已经成为影响地球表层物质循环格局、过程及其生态环境效应的主要驱动力,并引发区域性资源短缺和环境污染问题。为了推动资源与环境可持续利用,亟待发展物质循环科学,研究人类活动作用下的物质循环格局、过程与效应,发现物质的资源属性与环境属性相互转换规律,阐释“人类活动-资源消耗-污染物排放-环境归趋-环境效应”之间的互馈机制和响应关系,研发关键废物循环技术。本文界定了物质循环科学的研究视角与对象,并将其定义为一门研究人类活动作用下的地球表层物质循环路径、格局、过程与效应变化规律的学科;阐释了以人类矿床学为核心的物质循环科学理论体系,在此基础上明晰了物质循环格局与过程、废物循环技术、污染物排放的环境效应等相关方向的研究内容与方法;厘清了物质流分析、排放清单、废物循环技术、环境归趋与环境效应等研究方向的内在逻辑关系,并分析了物质流动路径中各过程之间的数据融合方法。

关键词: 物质循环科学, 资源流动, 排放清单, 环境归趋, 环境效应, 固废资源化

Abstract:

An important part of human activities is the continuously mining and processing of natural resources, and then transforming them into various products to meet the demand of production and consumption. Pollutants are discharged along the life cycle processes from mining to processing, production, consumption, and even waste management. From the perspective of material cycling, human activities are a fundamental way to relocate and reconstruct materials on the surface of the Earth. Nowadays, intensified human activities are altering the pathways and the spatial distribution of material cycles on the Earth’s surface, and furthermore, causing resources depletion and environmental pollution. Therefore, closing material cycling loop is vital for promoting the sustainability of resources and environment. Material cycling science and technology explores material cycling patterns, dynamic processes, and the associated environmental effects, discovers rules of mutual conversions between resource- and environment-character of materials, explains feedbacks and responses between ‘human activities-resources exploitation and utilization-pollutant emissions-environmental fate-environmental effect’, and develops waste recycling technologies. In this article, we firstly delineated the research perspectives, object and boundary, defined material cycling science as a discipline that explores paths, patterns, processes and effects of material cycling on the surface of the Earth. And then, we shed light on the theoretical framework with Anthropogenic Depositology as the core, which is built in 3 parts: material cycling patterns and processes, waste recycling technologies and environmental effects of emissions, and research content and methods of the discipline. We also clarified the logical relationships among the concepts of material flow analysis, emission inventory, resources recycling technology, environmental fate, and environmental effect, as well as the life-cycle data processing methods.

Key words: material cycling science, resources flow, emission inventory, environmental fate, environmental effect, solid waste recycling