资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (2): 403-411.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.17

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国畜禽粪便养分资源总量及替代化肥潜力

石晓晓1,2(), 郑国砥1,2(), 高定1,2, 陈同斌1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所环境修复中心,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-23 修回日期:2020-03-23 出版日期:2021-02-25 发布日期:2021-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 郑国砥
  • 作者简介:石晓晓,女,河南鹿邑人,硕士研究生,研究方向为固体废弃物资源化。E-mail: shixx. 17s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0501408);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0401102)

Quantity of available nutrient in livestock manure and its potential of replacing chemical fertilizers in China

SHI Xiaoxiao1,2(), ZHENG Guodi1,2(), GAO Ding1,2, CHEN Tongbin1,2   

  1. 1. Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-12-23 Revised:2020-03-23 Online:2021-02-25 Published:2021-04-25
  • Contact: ZHENG Guodi

摘要:

明确畜禽粪便资源数量及养分总量,计算其替代化肥潜力,对指导实现化肥零增长和减施增效具有重要意义。本文研究的畜禽种类包括牛、马、驴、骡、猪、羊、家禽和兔,利用排泄系数法估算了1980—2016年中国畜禽粪便的养分资源总量,并计算畜禽粪便替代化肥潜力。结果显示:①1980—2016年畜禽粪便和养分资源总量呈快速增长—稳定发展的趋势,2016年含量分别达到2.38×109t和4.71×107t,相比1980年增幅为45.7%和49.8%。②以2016年化肥实际施用总量5.98×107t计算,若2016年畜禽粪便资源化利用率由60%提高到75%,化学氮肥、钾肥和磷肥施用量理论上分别可减少3.7%、17.5%和44.2%,考虑畜禽粪便目前已有资源化利用量,其化肥替代潜力计算值更具有参考价值。③中国畜禽粪便替代化肥潜力巨大,但受种养分离、农田污染负荷等因素的影响,畜禽粪便肥料化利用率有待提升。基于以上发现,应通过优化畜牧业布局、合理规划畜禽粪便还田量等措施加快实现畜禽粪便利用率提高和化肥使用量零增长的目标。

关键词: 畜禽粪便, 养分, 资源量, 有机肥, 替代化肥潜力, 资源化利用

Abstract:

Quantifying the total amount and nutrient contents of livestock manure and calculating their substitution potential for chemical fertilizers are of great significance for achieving zero growth in fertilizer use. This study focused on the manure from cows, horses, donkeys, mules, pigs, sheep, poultry, and rabbits. The amount and the nutrient contents of livestock manure from 1980 to 2016 were estimated using the excretion coefficient method. The potential of livestock manure replacing chemical fertilizers was calculated according to the annual amount of chemical fertilizers applied and the amount of livestock manure that had been used. The results indicate that: (1) The amount and the nutrients of livestock manure showed a rapid growth trend then stabilized from 1980 to 2016. The manure resource and the total nutrients were 2.38×109 t and 4.71×107 t in 2016, and they had increased 45.7% and 49.8% from 1980 to 2016, respectively. (2) The total amount of chemical fertilizers applied in agriculture is 5.98×107 t in 2016. At present, the utilization rate of livestock manure is 60% in China. If the utilization rate of livestock manure increases to 75%, the consumption of chemical fertilizers can be reduced by 3.7% for nitrogen, 17.5% for phosphate, and 44.2% for potassium, respectively. The results showed that the potential of replacing chemical fertilizers is more valuable reference as it consider the current utilization of livestock and poultry manure. (3) The utilization rate of manure needs to be further improved under the conditions of farming and livestock and poultry farming are separated, pollutant loading to agricultural land. In order to achieve the utilization rate of livestock and poultry manure improved and zero growth in fertilizer, some measures should be taken such as optimizing the distribution of animal husbandry, rationally planning the amount of livestock and returning poultry manure to the field.

Key words: livestock manure, nutrient, resource amount, organic fertilizer, potential of replacing chemical fertilizers, resource utilization