资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (2): 328-340.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.11

• 生态资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

珠江三角洲基塘系统演化及生态修复策略——以佛山4村为例

陈彩霞1,2,4(), 黄光庆1,2,4(), 叶玉瑶2, 赵玲玲2, 金利霞2, 刘旭拢2,3   

  1. 1.中国科学院广州地球化学研究所,广州 510640
    2.广东省科学院广州地理研究所广东省地理空间信息技术与应用公共实验室,广州 510070
    3.南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州),广州 511458
    4.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-16 修回日期:2020-10-03 出版日期:2021-02-25 发布日期:2021-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 黄光庆
  • 作者简介:陈彩霞,女,广东揭东人,博士生,助理研究员,研究方向为区域环境与规划。E-mail: ibrave-xia@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    广东省促进经济发展专项资金(现代渔业发展用途)项目(粤农2019B1);广东省自然科学基金项目(2019A1515011120);南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0301)

Change and ecological restoration of the dike-pond system in the Pearl River Delta: A case study of four villages in Foshan City

CHEN Caixia1,2,4(), HUANG Guangqing1,2,4(), YE Yuyao2, ZHAO Lingling2, JIN Lixia2, LIU Xulong2,3   

  1. 1. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS, Guangzhou 510640, China
    2. Guangdong Open Laboratory of Geospatial Information Technology and Application, Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510070, China
    3. Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-03-16 Revised:2020-10-03 Online:2021-02-25 Published:2021-04-25
  • Contact: HUANG Guangqing

摘要:

珠江三角洲基塘系统是中国重要农业文化遗产,其宏观格局变化已广受关注,但微观村落层面的研究还未得到足够重视。本文构建了珠江三角洲基塘系统演化概念性分析框架,以佛山市西桥社区、南金村、青田村、仕版村为例,采用实地调研与半结构式访谈,分析基塘系统的演化过程、特征与机制。研究结果表明:①基塘系统已由原有种养结合转为单一高密度养殖塘,但邻近村居聚落的基塘系统与生活空间紧密结合,形成生态景观塘、菜基鱼塘等;②城镇化、工业化背景下村集体经济组织和农户“经济效益至上”的经营管理模式是基塘系统演化的内在动力;③转变基塘经营模式,发挥基塘综合效益,合理治理基塘与城乡空间的交错地带,与基塘农业文化遗产及乡村文化保育相结合,是实施基塘系统生态修复的关键。本文结果有助于揭示重要农业文化遗产动态演变规律,可为珠江三角洲农业可持续发展、国土空间规划提供理论依据。

关键词: 桑基鱼塘, 基塘农业, 重要农业文化遗产(IAHS), 水乡聚落, 生态修复, 演化, 珠江三角洲

Abstract:

The dike-pond system (DPS) has been recognized as a China Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems site. Its macro pattern changes have been widely concerned, but the micro village level research has not been paid enough attention. This study constructed an analytical framework for the qualitative analysis of change of the DPS. Taking Xiqiao, Nanjin, Qingtian, and Shiban Villages in Foshan City as examples, field research and semistructured interviews were used to analyze the process, characteristics, and mechanism of change of the DPS. The results show that the DPS has changed from the original combination of planting and breeding to a high density pond system. However, the DPS was closely combined with the living space of the nearby village settlements, forming ecological landscape pond, vegetable dike-fish pond, and so on. Under the background of urbanization and industrialization, the operation and management of rural collective economic organizations and farmers that prioritize economic benefits is the internal driver of the DPS change. Changing the operation mode of the DPS, giving full play to the comprehensive benefits of the system, reasonably managing the interface between DPS and urban-rural space, and combining with the conservation of agricultural and cultural heritage and rural culture of DPS are crucial for realizing the ecological restoration of the DPS in the Pearl River Delta. This study can provide some theoretical basis for the the sustainable development of agriculture and territorial spatial planning of the Pearl River Delta.

Key words: mulberry dike-fish pond system, dike-pond agriculture, Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (IAHS), water village settlements, ecological restoration, change, Pearl River Delta