资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (2): 280-292.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.07

• 资源经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

休耕对农户非农就业的影响

谢先雄1,2(), 邓悦1,2, 刘霁瑶1,2, 卢玮楠1,2, 赵敏娟1,2()   

  1. 1.西北农林科技大学经济管理学院,杨凌 712100
    2.陕西农村经济与社会发展协同创新研究中心,杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-08 修回日期:2020-06-05 出版日期:2021-02-25 发布日期:2021-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵敏娟
  • 作者简介:谢先雄,男,湖南常宁人,博士生,研究方向为资源与环境经济、农业公共政策评价。E-mail: xiexianxiong@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(15ZDA052);农业部、财政部重点专项资金项目(CARS-07-F-1)

Impact of fallow on off-farm employment of farmers

XIE Xianxiong1,2(), DENG Yue1,2, LIU Jiyao1,2, LU Weinan1,2, ZHAO Minjuan1,2()   

  1. 1. College of Economics and Management, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
    2. Collaborative Innovation Center of Rural Economy and Social Development, Yangling 712100, China
  • Received:2020-04-08 Revised:2020-06-05 Online:2021-02-25 Published:2021-04-25
  • Contact: ZHAO Minjuan

摘要:

随着农村剩余劳动力锐减及劳动力成本的不断攀升,中国亟需提高农业生产技术与转变经营方式,以释放更多农村劳动力。作为近年来在全国范围内快速推进的可持续农业经营方式,休耕是否有助于促进劳动力非农转移就业,已成为亟待解答的现实问题。为此,本文基于中国西北休耕试点区1240户农户的实地调查数据,综合运用多变量Probit、SUR回归、Heckman两步法以及工具变量法等方法,从就业决策、就业选择、就业强度以及就业收入4个方面,较全面系统地检验了休耕对农户非农就业的影响,并进一步考察了影响的异质性。研究结果表明:①总体上,休耕能提高农户非农就业的概率,但作用空间十分有限,且主要使农户倾向于选择非农经营;休耕对农户非农就业强度的影响主要是提高了其非农就业时间,而非就业人数,农户外地务工人数之所以增加只是休耕促使其家庭内部劳动力由本地务工转向外地务工的结果;休耕有利于增加农户非农总收入、外地务工收入和非农经营收入,这主要通过提高相应的非农就业时间来实现。②异质性分析表明,休耕参与程度对农户非农就业具有正向促进作用,但只有将耕地全部参与休耕才能显著提高农户非农就业概率,只有将家庭绝大多数耕地参与休耕才能显著提高农户非农就业强度和收入;休耕有利于纯农户与I兼农户非农就业并增加非农收入,对II兼业农户无促进效果;休耕显著提高了劳动力高年龄组农户非农就业强度与收入,对劳动力低年龄组无影响,且劳动力高教育组农户非农就业效果明显高于低教育组。本文不仅有助于填补已有文献的不足,对完善休耕政策以推动农业劳动力非农转移就业也具有一定的经验参考价值。

关键词: 农地休耕, 农户非农就业, 就业选择, 就业强度, 就业收入, 工具变量, 西北休耕试点区

Abstract:

With the depletion of China’s surplus rural labor force, it is urgent to reform agricultural operations to release rural labor. Farmland fallow is a sustainable agricultural operation mode, and whether fallow can help promote the transfer of labor force to non-agricultural operations has become a practical issue. Based on the field survey data of 1240 households in the Northwest fallow pilot area, this study used the multivariate Probit, seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR), Heckman two-step, and instrumental variable methods to systematically examine the impact of fallow on off-farm employment from the aspects of employment decision making, employment choice, employment intensity, and employment income, and further investigated the heterogeneity of the impacts. The results show that: (1) Fallow can improve the probability of farmers’ off-farm employment, but the space of action is very limited, and the farmers tend to choose off-farm business. The impact of fallow on the intensity of farmers’ off-farm employment is mainly to increase the available time for off-farm work, and is not to increase the number of off-farm workers. The number of migrant workers increased only because fallow promoted the labor force in their families to shift from local off-farm employment to working outside the home area. Fallow is conducive to increasing farmers’ total off-farm income, migrant workers’ income, and off-farm business income, which is mainly achieved by making more time available for corresponding off-farm activities. (2) The heterogeneity analysis shows that the degree of fallow participation has a positive role in promoting farmers’ off-farm employment, but only when all the cultivated land of a household is involved in fallow can the off-farm employment probability of its members be significantly improved, and only when most of the cultivated land is involved in fallow can their off-farm employment intensity and income be improved. Fallow is beneficial for pure and type I part-time farmers’ off-farm employment probability and income; and it improves farmers’ off-farm employment intensity and income in the older age group, and has greater impact in the high education group than in the low education group.

Key words: farmland fallow, farmers’ off-farm employment, employment choice, employment intensity, employment income, instrumental variable, Northwest fallow pilot area