资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (12): 2328-2340.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.06

• 资源经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

公众对电力来源清洁化的支付意愿

刘晓(), 徐建华()   

  1. 北京大学环境科学与工程学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-17 修回日期:2020-04-15 出版日期:2020-12-25 发布日期:2021-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 徐建华
  • 作者简介:刘晓,女,山东潍坊人,硕士研究生,研究方向为资源与环境经济学、环境政策与管理。Email: shawliu@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0207705)

Public willingness to pay for cleaner power sources

LIU Xiao(), XU Jianhua()   

  1. College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2019-12-17 Revised:2020-04-15 Online:2020-12-25 Published:2021-02-25
  • Contact: XU Jianhua

摘要:

电力来源清洁化对于中国的环境保护和能源安全有重要意义。了解公众对电力来源清洁化的偏好及支付意愿可为政府制定能源改革政策提供支撑。本文采用离散选择实验法研究了公众对电力来源清洁化的偏好和支付意愿,分析了电力来源结构、环境影响(CO2、SO2排放量)、电价等属性对偏好的影响以及不同特征个体间偏好的差异。基于在中国10个主要城市收集到的1008份有效问卷,本文运用Mixed Logit模型和Latent Class模型分析了数据。结果发现:①公众对电力来源的偏好存在地域差异;②电力来源带来的环境影响以及电价的增加均与公众对电力清洁化偏好程度呈负相关;③不同特征的个体对电力来源的偏好也不同,年龄越大、收入越高、居住地越靠近城市和越重视环保的受访者,越偏好清洁的电力来源;④公众愿意为SO2或CO2排放量降低30%的清洁电力多支付31%的电价,公众的环保态度对该支付意愿的影响(差异为26%左右)大于社会经济特征(如年龄)对支付意愿的影响(差异为15%左右)。基于此,本文建议在各地采用精细化的政策促进电力来源清洁化,以及增强公众的环保意识,尤其是低收入群体、年轻群体和乡村群体,从而提高公众对清洁可再生能源的接受度和支付意愿。

关键词: 电力来源结构, 环境影响, 公众选择偏好, 离散选择实验, 异质性, 支付意愿, 潜在分类模型

Abstract:

Switching to cleaner power sources is important for China’s environmental protection and energy security. Understanding public preference for power sources and willingness to pay for cleaner power sources can provide information for the government to develop energy policies. This study used a discrete choice experiment to explore public preference and willingness to pay for cleaner power sources, analyzed the influence of attributes such as power source structure, associated environmental impacts (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions) and electricity price change on preference, and characterized preference heterogeneities among different demographic and socioeconomic groups. A total of 1008 valid responses was collected in 10 selected cities, and mixed logit models and latent class models were used to analyze the data. The following results are obtained. (1) The public in different regions have different preferences for power sources. (2) Environmental impacts associated with the power sources and increase in electricity prices are negatively associated with public preference for cleaner power sources. (3) Preferences for power sources are different among different groups of people. Those who are older, with higher income, living closer to the city, and with pro-environmental attitudes prefer cleaner power sources. (4) The public is willing to pay 31% more for cleaner power sources that reduce sulfur dioxide or carbon dioxide emissions by 30%. The impact of public environmental attitude on the willingness to pay (the difference is about 26%) is greater than socioeconomic characteristics such as age (the difference is about 15%). Based on these findings, we suggest that precise policies be designed across regions, and efforts be put on raising public environmental awareness, especially for those with lower income, are younger, and live in rural areas, to improve public acceptance of and willingness to pay for renewable energy.

Key words: power source structure, environmental impact, public preference, discrete choice experiment, heterogeneity, willingness to pay, latent class model