资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (11): 2092-2105.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.04

• 海洋资源与北极航道专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北地区利用北极航道对欧贸易运输的竞争态势

李鹤()   

  1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130102
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-08 修回日期:2020-10-26 出版日期:2020-11-25 发布日期:2021-01-25
  • 作者简介:李鹤,男,内蒙古通辽人,副研究员,研究方向为城市与区域发展。E-mail: lihe@iga.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院重点部署项目(ZDRW-ZS-2017-4-3-4);科技部科技基础资源调查专项(2017FY101303-1);国家自然科学基金项目(42071162)

Competition among trade passages between Northeast China and Europe:An analysis under the opening of the Arctic shipping route

LI He()   

  1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS, Changchun 130102, China
  • Received:2020-09-08 Revised:2020-10-26 Online:2020-11-25 Published:2021-01-25

摘要:

北极东北航道的开通为东北地区对欧贸易通道的组织优化提供了新机遇。以运时和运费作为反映不同贸易通道竞争力的核心指标,识别了东北地区主要物流节点经由传统航道、中欧班列以及北极东北航道开展对欧贸易运输的竞争态势,比较分析了各内陆城市对接北极东北航道的不同路径。结果表明:①北极东北航道的开通将为我国东北地区对欧贸易运输提供一条运时和运费优势更加均衡的贸易通道,该航道可缩减东北地区主要物流节点对欧铁海联运时长,越靠北的物流节点运费节省越明显,在适航期与传统航道存在竞争;北极东北航道与中欧班列仅在辽宁沿海物流节点存在潜在竞争,若中欧班列不提高运输效率,二者运时区间未来可能会出现部分重叠。②东北地区内陆城市经由辽宁沿海或日本海对接北极东北航道的运时和运费优势最为显著,沿黑龙江航道进入鄂霍次克海对接北极东北航道的竞争力较弱,北极东北航道开通有望提升日本海沿岸物流节点在东北地区对欧运输网络中的地位。③东北地区对接北极东北航道具有运时和运费竞争力的陆海联运节点为营口、珲春和绥芬河,其中珲春与绥芬河经由北极东北航道至欧洲的运输里程相近,二者腹地吸引范围均涵盖黑龙江省部分内陆城市,作为陆海联运节点存在一定竞争。东北地区应发挥各贸易通道比较优势,规避不合理竞争,形成优势互补的对欧贸易运输格局。

关键词: 北极航道, 传统航道, 中欧班列, 对欧贸易通道, 东北地区, 竞争力

Abstract:

The opening of the northeast Arctic shipping route provides a new opportunity for the organization and optimization of the trade passages between Northeast China and Europe. Taking transport time and transport cost as the core indices to reflect the competitiveness of different trade passages, this study analyzed the competition among traditional shipping routes, China-Europe Railway Express, and the northeast Arctic shipping route, and identified the optimal paths connecting inland cities with the northeast Arctic shipping route. The results show that compared with the traditional shipping routes and the China-Europe Railway Express, the northeast Arctic shipping route has more advantage in terms of balanced transport time and transport cost. During the seaworthiness period, the northeast Arctic shipping route only has obvious competition with the traditional shipping routes and potential competitions with the China-Europe Railway Express in the coastal logistics nodes of Liaoning Province. For inland cities in Northeast China, connecting with the northeast Arctic shipping route via Liaoning coastal nodes or the Sea of Japan has significant comprehensive advantages. Yingkou, Hunchun, and Suifenhe are the most competitive connecting nodes, with some competitions between the latter two nodes. Northeast China should give full play to the comparative advantages of each trade passage, avoid unreasonable competitions, and form a trade transportation pattern with complementary advantages.

Key words: Arctic shipping route, traditional shipping route, China-Europe Railway Express, trade passages to Europe, Northeast China, competitiveness