资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (11): 2062-2074.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.02

• 海洋资源与北极航道专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

北极海洋资源利用的国际机制及中国应对

陈奕彤1,2(), 高晓1   

  1. 1.中国海洋大学法学院,青岛 266100
    2.中国海洋大学海洋发展研究院,青岛 266100
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-07 修回日期:2020-09-03 出版日期:2020-11-25 发布日期:2021-01-25
  • 作者简介:陈奕彤,女,山东青岛人,法学博士,讲师,主要研究方向为国际法、海洋法、极地问题。E-mail: chenyitong@outlook.com
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究基金项目(15YJC820006);科技部国家重点研发计划重点专项(SQ2019YFC140025-04);山东省高校青年创新计划项目(2020RWB006)

International regime for the use of Arctic marine resources and China’s response

CHEN Yitong1,2(), GAO Xiao1   

  1. 1. Law School, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
    2. Institute of Marine Development, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
  • Received:2020-05-07 Revised:2020-09-03 Online:2020-11-25 Published:2021-01-25

摘要:

气候变化使人类利用北极海洋资源成为可能,但少有研究涉及包括北极理事会在内的国际机制在北极海洋资源利用中的价值和作用方式,及其与环境保护之间互动机理的动态发展。对北极海洋资源利用的国际机制进行研究,有利于更好地利用北极海洋资源并为维护中国在北极的权益提供科学依据和参考意义。在气候变化的影响下,以往因海域结冰而无法利用的航运、油气、渔业等海洋资源被开发的机会和潜力显著增强,并吸引了各利益攸关方的浓厚兴趣。通过对北极海洋资源利用潜力和环境风险及相应的国际治理机制进行分析,发现:①具有分区主义特性的《联合国海洋法公约》和以议题为基础的一系列国际组织和国际法律文书共同构成了有关北极海洋资源利用的国际机制;②北极理事会在治理海洋资源利用的过程中,扮演了提供知识产品、协调北极国家一致意见、提升政治意愿、联络相关主管国际组织的角色,但其区域主义的治理路径缺乏对外部利益、人类共同利益以及海洋整体利益的考虑;③在跨领域的北极海洋资源利用问题上,现有的国际机制忽视了海洋的整体性,在解决资源利用与海洋生态环境保护之间的关系上力有不逮,既有的国际机制亟需能够容纳域外利益攸关者的国际合作。中国应在海洋命运共同体理念的指引下,继续拓宽在北极理事会内外参与北极治理的多维渠道,有技巧地维护中国在北极地区的国家利益。

关键词: 北极, 海洋资源, 北极理事会, 国际机制, 《联合国海洋法公约》, 中国

Abstract:

Climate change has made it possible for the human being to use the Arctic marine resources, but few studies have addressed the value and role of the international regime, including the Arctic Council, in the use of Arctic marine resources, as well as the dynamics of the interactive mechanism with environmental protection. The study of the international regime for the use of Arctic marine resources will be conducive to better utilization of Arctic marine resources and provide a scientific basis and reference for safeguarding China’s rights and interests in the Arctic. Under the impact of climate change, opportunities and potential for the exploitation of marine resources, such as shipping, oil and gas, and fisheries, which were previously unavailable due to sea ice, have attracted keen interest from various stakeholders. Through the analysis of the potential for the use of Arctic marine resources and environmental risks and the corresponding international governance regime, it was found that the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which has a sectoral character that divides the whole ocean into different maritime zones, and a series of issue-based international organizations and international legal instruments together constitute the international regime for the use of Arctic marine resources. The Arctic Council plays the role of providing knowledge products, coordinating the consensus of Arctic States, promoting political will, and liaising with relevant competent international organizations in the governance of Arctic marine resources, but its regional approach lacks consideration of external interests, the common interests of mankind, and the overall interests of the ocean. On the cross-sectorial issue of the use of Arctic marine resources, the existing international regime neglects the wholeness of the overall ocean, and it has not been able to address the relationship between resource use and marine ecological and environmental protection. The existing international regime is in dire need of international cooperation that can accommodate external stakeholders. Under the guidance of the concept of a community of maritime destiny, China should continue to expand the multidimensional channels for participation in Arctic governance within and outside the Arctic Council, and skillfully safeguard its national interests in the Arctic region.

Key words: Arctic, marine resources, Arctic Council, international regime, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, China