资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (10): 2022-2034.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.18

• 实证与应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

干旱区绿洲湿地空间分布及生态系统服务价值变化——以三大典型内陆河流域为例

孟阳阳1,2(), 何志斌1(), 刘冰1, 陈龙飞1, 刘蓓3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院,中国生态系统研究网络临泽内陆河流域研究站,兰州 730000
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中国地质调查局西安矿产资源调查中心,西安 710100
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-25 修回日期:2020-10-05 出版日期:2020-10-25 发布日期:2020-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 何志斌
  • 作者简介:孟阳阳,女,山西临汾人,博士研究生,主要从事湿地生态学研究。E-mail: mengyangyang@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    美丽中国生态文明建设工程专项(XDA23060301);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0504306);国家自然科学基金项目(41771038);自然资源要素综合观测数据集成与应用服务项目(DD20208067)

Changes of spatial distribution and ecosystem service value of oasis wetlands in arid areas: Taking three typical inland river basins as examples

MENG Yangyang1,2(), HE Zhibin1(), LIU Bing1, CHEN Longfei1, LIU Bei3   

  1. 1. Linze Inland River Basin Research Station, Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Xi’an Mineral Resources Research Center of China Geological Survey, Xi’an 710100, China
  • Received:2020-08-25 Revised:2020-10-05 Online:2020-10-25 Published:2020-12-25
  • Contact: HE Zhibin

摘要:

湿地在维系干旱区绿洲生态系统结构、功能以及水文循环方面发挥着重要作用。对绿洲湿地的综合监测与评估,是准确认识湿地保护政策成效、加强湿地生态环境恢复与保护的基础。本文利用1975—2015年多时段遥感影像解译数据和效益转移法,定量分析了2000年湿地保护政策实施前后近40年塔里木河干流上游、黑河中游和石羊河中下游等典型绿洲湿地空间格局及其生态系统服务价值变化特征。结果表明:①2000年之前,由于绿洲湿地被肆意开垦,导致绿洲湿地面积均大幅减少且湿地景观逐渐破碎化,损失了较多湿地生态效益。2000年之后,在湿地保护政策实施下,塔里木河干流上游和黑河中游绿洲湿地面积及其生态效益均取得较好的恢复成效,湿地破坏较为严重的石羊河中下游绿洲,其湿地保护与恢复工作有待进一步加强。②湿地生态系统服务总价值主要来源于调节服务功能(占比74%~81%)。③湿地所占绿洲面积非常小,但对绿洲总生态系统服务价值变化的贡献率较大。因此,湿地的保护与恢复对绿洲生态系统稳定性、提升生态系统服务价值至关重要。

关键词: 绿洲湿地, 土地利用, 空间分布, 生态系统服务价值, 湿地保护, 内陆河流域

Abstract:

Wetlands play an important role in maintaining the structure, function, and hydrological cycle of oasis ecosystems in arid areas. The comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of oasis wetlands is the basis for accurately understanding the effectiveness of wetland protection policies and strengthening the restoration and protection of wetland ecological environment. Based on the multi-period remote sensing image interpretation from 1975 to 2015 and the benefit transfer method, this study quantitatively analyzed the spatial pattern and ecosystem service value change characteristics of the typical oasis wetlands in the upper reaches of the main stream of the Tarim River, the middle reaches of the Heihe River, and the middle and lower reaches of the Shiyang River in recent 40 years before and after the implementation of wetland protection policy in 2000, and put forward the corresponding management countermeasures of oasis wetlands. The study pointed out that due to people’s pursuit of short-term economic benefits in oases before 2000, the area of oasis wetlands was greatly reduced, and the wetlands landscape was gradually fragmented, resulting in more loss of wetland ecological benefits. Under the implementation of wetland protection policy after 2000, the area of oasis wetlands in the upper reaches of the main stream of the Tarim River and the middle reaches of the Heihe River and their ecological benefits have basically increased, but wetland loss in the Shiyang River oasis was serious and the protection and restoration of its wetlands needed to be further strengthened. The total value of ecosystem services of wetlands was mainly from its regulating service function (accounting for 74%-81% of the total). The wetland area of oases was very small, but the contribution rate of wetlands to the change of total ecosystem service value of oases was large. Therefore, the protection and restoration of wetlands are very important to the stability of oasis ecosystem and the improvement of ecosystem service value.

Key words: oasis wetland, land use, spatial distribution, ecosystem service value, wetland protection, inland river basin