资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (10): 1987-1997.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.15

• 实证与应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

祁连山高寒山区降水观测网络及其数据应用

韩春坛1,2(), 王磊3, 陈仁升1(), 刘章文1, 刘俊峰1, 阳勇1, 吕汉秦4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室 黑河上游生态-水文试验研究站,兰州 730000
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 山东师范大学 地理与环境学院,济南 250358
    4. 中国地质调查局呼和浩特自然资源综合调查中心,呼和浩特 010010
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-03 修回日期:2020-08-27 出版日期:2020-10-25 发布日期:2020-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈仁升
  • 作者简介:韩春坛,男,宁夏固原人,高级工程师,主要从事寒区降水和凝结水过程观测研究。E-mail: hancht@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFC0507404);国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFC1510502);国家自然科学基金项目(41971041);自然资源要素综合观测数据集成与应用服务项目(DD20208067)

Precipitation observation network and its data application in the alpine region of Qilian Mountains

HAN Chuntan1,2(), WANG Lei3, CHEN Rensheng1(), LIU Zhangwen1, LIU Junfeng1, YANG Yong1, LV Hanqin4   

  1. 1. Qilian Alpine Ecology and Hydrology Research Station, Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. College of Geography and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
    4. Hohhot Natural Resources Comprehensive Survey Center, China Geological Survey, Hohhot 010010, China
  • Received:2020-06-03 Revised:2020-08-27 Online:2020-10-25 Published:2020-12-25
  • Contact: CHEN Rensheng

摘要:

降水是地表及地下水资源的根本补给源,直接影响水资源的时空分布格局以及山地冰冻圈的分布和发育。祁连山高寒山区是降水和产流高值区,降水特征受地形影响较大,但现有的降水观测网络还无法合理反映降水特征在地形垂直梯度上的变化。为了确定降水变化如何影响高寒山区的水文和生态过程,需要从流域垂直梯度观测降水形态和降水量的变化。本文概述了由T-200BM3组成的祁连山高山区降水格网化、梯度化、自动化观测网络,并在八一冰川冰缘区建立高寒山区降水标准校正场,采用世界气象组织(WMO)推荐的降水/降雪观测标准(DFIR)校正八一冰川区域降水量。在八一冰川区域对地面降水数据产品作初步分析,并利用高海拔站点数据评估了GPM和TRMM降水数据产品在祁连山区的适用性。该降水观测网络的建设对进一步认识高寒山区不同海拔雨雪和水汽变化规律,精细化评估高寒山区降水资源具有重要意义,并可为全国的降水资源综合观测和评估提供方法和降水数据产品。

关键词: 降水观测网络, 雨雪量计, 祁连山, 高寒山区, 八一冰川, TRMM, GPM, 数据应用

Abstract:

Precipitation is the fundamental replenishment source of surface and groundwater resources, which directly affects the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the distribution and development of mountainous cryosphere. The alpine region of the Qilian Mountains is an area of large amounts of precipitation and runoff. The characteristics of precipitation are greatly affected by topography. However, the existing precipitation observation network cannot reasonably reflect the changes of precipitation on the vertical topographic gradient. To determine how the spatial and temporal change of precipitation affects the hydrological and ecological processes of the alpine mountains, it is necessary to observe the changes of precipitation pattern and type from the vertical gradient of the catchment. This article summarized the gridded, stepped, and automated precipitation observation network in the alpine region of the Qilian Mountains. The network is formed by the Geonor T-200BM3 weighing-type all weather precipitation gauges. A precipitation calibration system is also built in the Aug-one Glacier periglacial area, which is based on the Double Fenced Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). In the Aug-one Glacier region, a preliminary analysis of precipitation datasets was conducted, and the applicability of GPM and TRMM precipitation datasets in the Qilian Mountains was evaluated using observational data. The development of this network is important for an in-depth understanding of the changes of rain, snow, and water vapor at different elevations, and minute division of the evaluation of precipitation resources in the alpine mountains. This network provides methods and data products for the comprehensive observation and evaluation of precipitation resources across China.

Key words: precipitation observation network, weighing-type gauge, Qilian Mountains, alpine mountains, Aug-one Glacier, TRMM, GPM, data application