资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (9): 1816-1826.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.09.15

• 旅游资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游生态补偿的市场化路径及其理论解析

冯凌1(), 郭嘉欣1, 王灵恩2()   

  1. 1. 北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院,北京 100024
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-12 修回日期:2020-08-08 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 王灵恩
  • 作者简介:冯凌,男,四川广安人,副教授,博士,研究方向为旅游规划与政策、旅游影响与可持续旅游。E-mail: 153112950@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    北京市社会科学基金重大项目(19ZDA11);北京第二外国语学院2019年校级重点项目(LYFZ19A004);拉萨市科技支撑面向乡村振兴的产业融合科技示范基地项目(SCKJ004)

Marketization path of tourism ecological compensation and theoretical analysis

FENG Ling1(), GUO Jiaxin1, WANG Lingen2()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Sciences, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-12-12 Revised:2020-08-08 Online:2020-09-25 Published:2020-11-25
  • Contact: WANG Lingen

摘要:

多元化生态补偿制度建设是新时代中国生态文明建设的重要任务,旅游市场化生态补偿机制构建有助于丰富和完善中国生态补偿制度体系。本文运用文献资料梳理和生态经济分析框架,在总结政府主导型、社区参与型等旅游生态补偿实践的基础上,明确了旅游市场化生态补偿的内涵特征、利益主体,并探索其运行的内在机制。结果表明:旅游市场化生态补偿形成生态旅游供需对接平台,具有以市场交易实现生态资源价值、内生性和循环性、参与主体多元性等特征;主要涉及游客、旅游企业、社区居民、当地政府等利益主体;其运行机制是社区居民和旅游企业在有机合作和投入建设基础上,将自然资源和生态系统服务功能生产转换为生态性旅游产品,游客通过付费购买生态旅游产品和服务,形成对旅游企业、社区居民、目的地生态系统的直接和间接补偿,从而构建可持续的“交易—获利—激励—再交易”市场化补偿路径。这一市场化机制运行的前提是自然资源产权的确定,关键是资源生态价值的实现,核心是生态服务功能交易的互动激励,而多方博弈中政府的调节是重要保障。

关键词: 旅游生态补偿, 市场化, 利益相关者, 概念模型, 运行机制

Abstract:

The development of a diversified ecological compensation system is an important task of China’s ecological civilization construction in the new era. Developing a market-oriented ecological compensation mechanism for tourism contributes to enriching and improving China’s ecological compensation system. Based on the literature review and an ecological-economic analysis framework, this study summarized the government-led and community-based tourism ecological compensation, and clarified the connotation, characteristics, and stakeholders of tourism market-oriented ecological compensation. We then explored the operation mechanism of tourism market-oriented ecological compensation. The results show that: tourism market-oriented ecological compensation forms an ecological tourism supply-demand docking platform, which has the characteristics of realizing the value of ecological resources through market transactions, endogenousness and feedback loops, and diversified participants. Tourists, tourism enterprises, community residents, and local governments are the main stakeholders of the platform. Its operating mechanism is that based on cooperation and investment, community residents and tourism companies convert the natural resources and ecosystem services into ecological tourism products, then tourists purchase the eco-tourism products and services to form direct and indirect compensation for the tourism enterprises, community residents, and destination ecosystem, thereby developing a sustainable market-oriented compensation path of “transaction-profit-incentive-transaction”. The prerequisite of the operating mechanism is to determine the property rights of resources, the key is to realize the ecological value of resources, the core is the interactive incentive for the transaction of ecological service functions, and government regulation is an important guarantee in the multi-party game.

Key words: tourism ecological compensation, marketization, stakeholders, conceptual model, operation mechanism