资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (9): 1739-1749.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.09.09

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原景观生态风险的时空特征

王洁1,2(), 摆万奇1(), 田国行2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 河南农业大学风景园林与艺术学院,郑州 450002
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-23 修回日期:2020-08-24 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 摆万奇
  • 作者简介:王洁,女,河南安阳人,硕士生,研究方向为土地利用生态风险。E-mail: 434348259@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略先导科技专项(A类)(XDA20040201);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察项目(2019QZKK0603)

Spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape ecological risks on the Tibetan Plateau

WANG Jie1,2(), BAI Wanqi1(), TIAN Guohang2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Landscape Architecture and Art, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
  • Received:2020-03-23 Revised:2020-08-24 Online:2020-09-25 Published:2020-11-25
  • Contact: BAI Wanqi

摘要:

以1992、2001、2008和2015年4期青藏高原土地覆被数据为基础,运用ArcGIS10.5和 Fragstats4.2 等软件,构建基于景观格局和景观脆弱度的生态风险指数,借助地统计分析和空间自相关分析方法,开展青藏高原生态风险评价研究,分析景观生态风险的时空特征,为青藏高原土地利用生态风险防范提供科学依据。结果显示:①青藏高原景观生态风险分布具有聚集效应,总体呈西北高东南低的梯度分布规律,这与青藏高原的自然地带性关系密切;②1992—2015年间,青藏高原景观生态风险总体呈下降趋势,主要表现为高风险区与较高风险区面积减少,以及低风险区与较低风险区面积扩大。变化的主要动因是20世纪90年代以来青藏高原气候暖湿化过程和生态建设对青藏高原土地覆被结构的影响;③青藏高原各地类景观生态风险值较高的区域主要集中在不同地类相接的边缘地带。低生态风险等级在林地中占比最大,高生态风险等级在裸地和冰川与雪被中占比较大。裸地和草地高生态风险等级面积下降率最大,反映出裸地和草地变化对青藏高原景观生态风险影响最为显著,在青藏高原的生态风险管理过程中应重点关注裸地和草地的结构和质量变化。

关键词: 生态风险评价, 景观格局, 空间自相关, 时空特征, 青藏高原

Abstract:

Using the land cover data of the Tibetan Plateau in 1992, 2001, 2008, and 2015 and ArcGIS 10.5 and Fragstats 4.2 software, this research built an ecological risk index based on landscape pattern and landscape vulnerability, and used geo-statistical analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis methods to conduct an ecological risk assessment for the Tibetan Plateau, then analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape ecological risks. It provides a scientific basis for the prevention of land use ecological risks of the Tibetan Plateau. The results show that: (1) The distribution of landscape ecological risks on the Tibetan Plateau has an spatial aggregation effect. On the whole, the risk in the northwest is high, while it is low in the southeast. The spatial distribution of landscape ecological risks is closely related to the natural terrain of the Tibetan Plateau, which is mainly affected by the geographical conditions. (2) From 1992 to 2015, the landscape ecological risks of the Tibetan Plateau showed a downward trend, which is mainly manifested in the reduction of the high and the medium-high risk areas, and the expansion of the low and the medium-low risk areas. The main reason for this change is the influence of the warming and wetting process of the Tibetan Plateau and ecological construction on the land cover structure since the 1990s. (3) There are significant differences in the distribution and characteristics of landscape ecological risk change on the Tibetan Plateau. The regions with higher landscape ecological risk values mainly exist in the marginal areas where different terrains meet. Forest land has the highest proportion of low ecological risk areas, while barren land, glacier, and snow cover have the highest proportion of high ecological risk areas. The declining rate of barren land with high ecological risk grade was the highest, followed by grassland, which reflect that the change of barren land and grassland had the most significant impact on the landscape ecological risks of the Tibetan Plateau.

Key words: ecological risk assessment, landscape pattern, spatial autocorrelation, spatiotemporal characteristics, Tibetan Plateau