资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (8): 1504-1514.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.08.06

• 关键矿产资源贸易 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于产业链国际贸易网络的中国优势矿产资源全球贸易格局和竞争力——以钨为例

李华姣1,2(), 安海忠1,2, 齐亚杰1,2, 刘海萍1,2   

  1. 1.中国地质大学(北京)经济管理学院,北京 100083
    2.自然资源部资源环境承载力评价重点实验室,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-01 修回日期:2020-07-14 出版日期:2020-08-25 发布日期:2020-10-25
  • 作者简介:李华姣,女,山东烟台人,副教授,博士生导师,研究方向为复杂科学管理、资源环境政策。E-mail: babyproud@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大项目(71991481);国家自然科学基金项目(41871202);国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(41701121)

Trade and competitiveness structure of China’s advantageous mineral resources based on the international trade network of industrial chain: A case study of Tungsten

LI Huajiao1,2(), AN Haizhong1,2, QI Yajie1,2, LIU Haiping1,2   

  1. 1. School of Economics and Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2020-01-01 Revised:2020-07-14 Online:2020-08-25 Published:2020-10-25

摘要:

为深入研究优势矿产资源产业链各环节产品国际贸易的格局和特征,识别中国在产业链各阶段的贸易竞争优势和潜在问题,本文以钨为例,选取了2009—2018年Uncomtrade商品名称中含钨关键词的钨矿和钨精矿、钨酸盐、钨铁合金和钨制品四大类产品的国际贸易数据,构建了国家(地区)间贸易网络,从贸易额、产业集中度类型等角度分析了不同类别钨产品国际贸易的整体格局和演化趋势,并根据C8寡占成员的演化情况选取了稳居寡占名单的国家作为典型研究对象,对其寡占优势、中介控制优势、出口结构等方面的竞争力进行了分析。结果发现:钨产业链各环节均存在少数国家掌握着极大的贸易量的现象;中国具有贸易中介控制力竞争优势的是钨矿,而具有寡占竞争优势的主要是中下游产品,且总体上呈现出“中间高两头低”倒U型特征,同时中国具有出口分散渠道方面较好的优势以及中介控制能力的劣势。中国想要实现与自身资源禀赋和加工生产能力相匹配的话语权,仍需要基于现有寡占竞争力,在精细化产品加工、中介控制能力等方面提升竞争力。此外,本文基于中国各环节竞争优势横纵向对比提出了相关建议,为量化分析钨产业链不同环节存在问题和潜在风险提供了基础。

关键词: 钨产业链, 国际贸易网络, 竞争优势, 产业集中度, 优势战略矿产资源

Abstract:

In order to examine the pattern and characteristics of international trade of products in each stage of the industrial chain of advantageous mineral resources, and identify China’s competitive advantages of trade and potential problems in the industrial chain, this study used tungsten as example and selected the international trade data of tungsten ore, tungsten concentrate, tungstate, ferroalloy, and tungsten products in the upstream, midstream, and downstream products of the tungsten industrial chain from 2009 to 2018, to construct the international trade networks to analyze the overall structure of international trade in each stage of the global tungsten industrial chain in terms of trade volume, industrial concentration type, and so on. We selected the countries and regions in the list of stable oligopolistic countries/regions as the typical research objects to analyze the oligopolistic index, the control ability of trade channels, the export structure index, among others, and found that few countries hold a large amount of trade in every stage of the tungsten industrial chain, and China has the highest competitiveness for exporting tungstate, and has competitive advantage in the midstream and downstream products. China’s competitive advantage shows a reversed-U shape. Meanwhile, China has the advantage of the diversity of channels and the disadvantage of the control ability of trade channels. Therefore, if China wants to realize the discourse power matching with its own resource endowment and processing capacity, it still needs to improve its competitiveness in terms of refined product processing and intermediary control ability based on the existing oligopoly competitiveness. Finally, we combined the horizontal and vertical comparison of China’s competitive advantage in international trade in all stages to analyze the problems and potential risks, and relevant recommendations were put forward.

Key words: tungsten industrial chain, international trade network, competitive advantage, degree of industrial concentration, advantageous strategic mineral resources