资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (7): 1405-1415.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.16

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

农户分化对农地功能供给多样化的影响路径

单玉红(), 王琳娜   

  1. 华中农业大学公共管理学院,武汉 430070
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-28 修回日期:2020-02-21 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 作者简介:单玉红,女,山东日照人,副教授,博士,研究方向为土地生态利用。E-mail:shanyuhong@mail.hzau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(16YJC630016);中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金项目(2662020GGPY003)

Path analysis of farming household differentiation on the diversification of farmland function supply

SHAN Yuhong(), WANG Linna   

  1. School of Public Administration, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Received:2019-10-28 Revised:2020-02-21 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25

摘要:

推动农地的多功能利用是顺应“功能拓展”这一现代农业发展的客观规律,实现乡村振兴战略的重要基础。社会化小农阶段,农户渐趋分化,其意愿行为的复杂性直接影响到农地功能供给的多样性。本文通过归纳社会化小农的行为特征,以“农地多功能需求的农户响应”为中介因素,构建了农户分化影响农地功能供给多样化的路径分析概念模型,并使用结构方程(SEM)对该模型进行拟合,分析农户分化对农地功能供给多样化的直接效应及其经由“农地多功能需求的农户响应”这一中介因素对农地功能供给多样化的间接效应的大小、方向及影响因素,以探索小农社会化的趋势下,农户分化对农地多功能供给的影响及其影响路径。在湖北省黄陂、新州、鄂州、江夏、通山、蔡甸共6个县(区)的实证研究表明:①农户分化对农地功能供给的多样化兼有直接和间接的负向影响,即农户拥有的生计资本越多,则其供给的农地功能的多样性越低。②农户分化对农地功能供给多样化的直接负效应主要源于农业生产条件的外部化造成的某些生产要素替代,如优质劳动力的流失引起的劳动力要素和其化肥、农药等要素之间的替代造成的农地生态功能的弱化;③间接负效应则源于社会化小农趋势下渗透型、联结型、物质型3类生产要素的失配,即3类要素的投入没有达成激励相容,从而影响了农地多功能的产出效率。基于以上研究结果提出如下建议以推动农地的多功能利用:①重视新型的联接型及渗透型生产要素的投入,并且使两者与实物型生产要素达到激励相容。②拓宽传统的农地利用方式,加深农户对农地外部化生产条件的认知,并通过社保、财政等手段缓解农户对外部化生产条件的依赖,吸引优质农业劳动力回归;③完善农地流转政策,搭建农地流转信息交流平台,推动农地的完全流转。

关键词: 农户分化, 农地功能供给多样化, 社会化小农, 路径分析, 结构方程模型, 湖北省

Abstract:

Under the background of socialized small-scale farming operation, the complexity of farming households’ willingness and behavior directly affects the diversity of farmland function supply. By summarizing the behavioral characteristics of socialized small-scale farmers and taking farming households’ response to the demand for agricultural land multi-functions as the intermediary factor, this study constructed a conceptual path analysis model, and used the structural equation (SEM) to fit the model to analyze the direct effects of farming household differentiation on the diversification of agricultural land function supply and its indirect effects through the intermediary factor as well, in order to explore the influences and paths. The empirical study of six research areas in Huangpi, Xinzhou, Ezhou, Jiangxia, Tongshan, and Caidian of Hubei Province showed that the differentiation of farmers has both direct and indirect negative effects on the diversification of farmland function supply. The more livelihood capital the farming households possess, the lower the diversity of farmland functions they supply. The direct negative effects of farmer differentiation on the diversification of farmland function supply mainly come from the substitution of some production factors caused by the externalization of agricultural production conditions under the trend of socialized small-scale farmers, such as the weakening of ecological function of agricultural land caused by the loss of high-quality labor force and the substitution between the elements of labor force and chemical fertilizer or pesticide; while the indirect negative effect are mainly from the mismatch of three types of production factors which means the input of the three types of factors has not reached incentive compatibility, thus affecting the output efficiency of agricultural land multi-functions. Therefore, we need to pay attention to the new connection and infiltration of production factors, and make them compatible with material elements. As far as our research areas are concerned, first, it is necessary to broaden the traditional way of agricultural land use, deepen farmers’ cognition of the external production conditions of agricultural land, and alleviate the dependence of farming households on external production conditions by means of social security and finance, so as to attract high-quality agricultural labor force to return; in addition, it is also necessary to improve the transfer of land rights and build an information exchange platform to promote the multi-functional utilization of agricultural land.

Key words: farming household differentiation, diversification of farmland function supply, socialized small-scale farmers, path analysis, structural equation model (SEM), Hubei Province