资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (7): 1372-1383.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.13

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

公众参与环境治理的逻辑、路径与效应

郭进1(), 徐盈之2   

  1. 1.南京师范大学商学院,南京 210023
    2.东南大学经济管理学院,南京 211189
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-27 修回日期:2020-07-24 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 作者简介:郭进,男,安徽宣城人,博士,讲师,主要研究方向为环境经济、城市经济。E-mail: guojin0901@njnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年项目(71803086);国家社会科学基金重点项目(19AJY011);江苏省高校哲学社会科学研究重大项目(2020SJZDA053)

The logics, paths, and effects of public participation in environmental management

GUO Jin1(), XU Yingzhi2   

  1. 1. School of Business, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. School of Economics & Management, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
  • Received:2019-06-27 Revised:2020-07-24 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25

摘要:

公众作为环境资源的利益相关者,与政府和企业一道,成为推动环境治理的三股力量。本文基于公众在解决信息不对称问题和完善社会舆论监督方面的优势,论述了公众参与环境治理的理论基础和参与路径。在此基础上,本文构建了2011—2015年中国省际平衡面板数据,并将公众参与划分为侧重于后端治理的投诉上访和侧重于前端治理的建言献策两类,对公众参与环境治理的效应进行了评估。研究发现:①在“政府-企业-公众”三元环境治理体系中,公众参与一方面依赖于政府的环境执法迫使企业污染环境的外部成本内部化,进而间接地参与环境治理;另一方面其本身对污染企业的震慑作用也会产生与政府环境执法类似的效果,进而直接地参与环境治理。②两种细分类型的公众参与,其效应表现出异质性,即公众参与环境治理主要体现在以投诉上访为主要形式的后端治理层面,以建言献策为主要形式的前端治理效应不显著。③采用工具变量法来缓解内生性问题后,公众参与环境治理的效应得到了进一步增强,同时发现居民平均受教育程度的提高显著地扩大了公众参与环境治理的水平。据此,本文对进一步扩大公众参与环境治理提出了政策建议。

关键词: 公众参与, 环境治理, 信息不对称, 社会舆论监督, 环境执法

Abstract:

As an essential stakeholder of environmental resource, the public has become the third force that assists in promoting environmental governance together with local governments and polluting enterprises. Considering the advantages of public participation in solving the problem of information asymmetry and improving the supervisory role of public opinion, this study expounded the theoretical logics and paths of exercising public participation in environmental management. Then, we divided public participation into complaints that focus on back-end management and suggestions that focus on front-end management, and constructed an inter-provincial balance panel data set of China from 2011 to 2015 to evaluate the effect of public participation in environmental management. The results indicated that: (1) In the ternary environmental management system consisting of local governments, enterprises, and the public, on the one hand, public participation relied on government environmental enforcement to force polluting enterprises to internalize external costs, and thus indirectly take part in local environmental management. On the other hand, its deterrent effect on polluting enterprises could also produce similar effect as government environmental enforcement, to promote environmental management directly. (2) The two types of public participation showed heterogeneous environmental management effects. Public participation’s effect in promoting environmental management was mainly reflected in complaints as a representative of back-end management, while the effect of suggestions as a representative of front-end management did not pass the significance test. (3) Public participation’s effect in promoting environmental management was further enhanced after adopting instrumental variables to alleviate the endogeneity problem. This study also found that residents’ average education level had a significant positive effect on public participation. At last, some suggestions were offered to expand the level of public participation in environmental management.

Key words: public participation, environmental management, information asymmetry, social supervision, environmental enforcement